What is history ??
The word history comes from a greek word “historia” which means “Inquiry”. Inquiry about events happened among mankind, asking questions about human past and thus trying to find out answers to different questions and starting thinking about the questions, analyzing and researching them. It seems that history contains everything that ever happened in past ? “Past is not history”. But isn’t history a very subjective issue ? This highlights how historians no longer believe there can be one single history. Instead history is seen as being made up of multiple accounts and multiple perspectives; but the importance of evidence to support that account takes history, in theory at least, out of the realm of fiction, of myth and of legend.
History and war
The word ‘war’ comes to English by the old High German language word ‘Werran’ is a state of open and usually declared armed conflict between political entities such as sovereign states or between rival political or social factions within the same state. War is usually waged by political entities, nations or, earlier, city states in order to resolve political or territorial disputes and are carried out on the battlefield by armies consists of soldiers of the struggling nations or by mercenaries paid by a government to wage battle.
War is basically “survival of the fittestT”.
throughout history, individuals, states, or political factions have gained sovereignty over regions through the use of war. The history of one of the earliest civilizations in the world, that of Mesopotamia, is a account of nearly constant conflict . Even after Sargon the Great of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE) merge the region under the Akkadian Empire, war was still waged in putting down rebellions . The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt(3150-2686 BCE) is thought to have risen from war when the Pharaoh Manes (or Menes) of the south conquered the region of northern Egypt. In China, the Zhou Dynasty gained ascendancy through battle in 1046 BCE and the conflict of the Warring States Period ((476-221 BCE) was resolved when the State of Qin defeated the other contending states in battle and unified China under the rule of emperor Shi Huangti. And thus it continues.. ..
causes of war
Historians recognize that wars have been waged for many reasons
However, including dynastic ambition, religious sectarianism and political ideology . Political history shows how domestic conflicts and constitutional debates have shaped the ways in which wars were fought , and explore the consequences . territorial,political,institutional of victory and defeat.
Various reasons of war could be
Nonavailability of resources, status quo, sociocultural differences, expansion of territory etc.
Religious view of war
Hindu attitudes to war and peace are based on the sacred texts like upnishads, Vedas, manu , and the bhagavad gita.
In Hinduism it is believe that any violence is always wrong . this includes fighting in a war or killing animals for meat. Hindus believe in law of karma. However war is not forbidden in Hinduism . it is believe that it is dharma of Kshatriya the warrior caste to fight in battles when required. Even in bhagavad gita Krishna has a dialogue with Arjuna explaining him his duty to fight for the truth.
Muslims beliefs to war and peace are based on teaching on the “Quran”. There are two ideas in Muslim teaching that relate to war jihad and hard al-muqadis. They believe in peace and peace making. Fighting and war is permitted in certain circumstances when all else has been tried and failed.
Christianity advocates ” you shall not murder” but there are occasions when Jewish people are told by God to attack people who oppose them.
So the fundamental causes of war are statism, collectivism, individualism, egoism, rationality and honesty.
Justification of war
Justification of war derives from the “just war theory “. this theory deals with justification of how and why wars are fought.
A war is only just if it is fought for a reason that is justified, and that carries sufficient moral weight. The country that wishes to use military force must demonstrate that there is a just cause to do so.
The justification can be either theoretical or historical. the theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect or just war tradition deals with the historical body of rules or agreements .
The just war theory has a long history. Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. .there are various
Principles of Just-War Theory
A just war can only be waged after all peaceful options are considered. The use of force can only be used as a last resort.
A just war is waged by a legitimate authority. A war cannot be waged by individuals or groups that do not constitute the legitimate government.
A just war needs to be in response to a wrong suffered. Self-defense against an attack always constitutes a just war; however, the war needs to be fought with the objective to correct the inflicted wound.
In order for a war to be just, there must be a rational possibility of success. A nation cannot enter into a war with a hopeless cause.
The primary objective of a just war is to re-establish peace. In particular, the peace after the war should exceed the peace that would have succeeded without the use of force. The aim of the use of force must be justice.
The violence in a just war must be proportional to the casualties suffered. The nations involved in the war must avoid disproportionate military action and only use the amount of force absolutely . The war must be undertaken with the intention of establishing a just peace. It must be defensive. It must be aimed at protecting the innocent against unjust aggression. It must have a reasonable chance of success. It must be declared and waged by a competent governing authority. And it must be undertaken as a last resort. If the war meets these criteria, it can be considered morally justified.
There are just two problems.
First, as I’ve argued before, states have different moral obligations than individuals. When an individual refuses to come to the aid of a victim of injustice, we rightly judge him harshly for failing to fulfill his moral duty. But the primary and overriding duty of a government is to uphold the nation’s common good and defend its citizens against external harm or attack. If that sounds selfish, that’s because it is. Our government’s highest duty is to us. It can have no duty to the citizens of another nation.
Second, to insist that policymakers base the decision about whether to go to war on the supposition that a failure to act
will result in worse moral atrocities than if they do act is to place a black box of uncertainty at the core of deliberation. And that can lead to massive blunders, as we saw very vividly in the arguments leading up to the start of the Iraq War in 2003 — arguments that Biggar exhaustively reconstructs in an unfortunate 69-page chapter that ends with him pronouncing that, all things considered, the war was morally justified.
War has multiple effects in societies, positive and negative both. There are a lot of factors that determine the faith of a country. There are many different questions that we should ask ourselves before reaching a conclusion. What is the society like before the war took place? What did the war end up happening in the first place? Was this war popular? Did the country win this war or lose it? But the magnitude of war and its effects are extensive and prevalent. The effects can be long-term and in some cases short term also. And it depends on who is being affected, and what role they are playing in the society and the war. If you are a civilian, a soldier, a woman, a child or an elderly. The consequences of war are in many forms, shapes, and sizes.
An individual’s rights exist on domains like health, shelter, security, and education. Besides all these rights, a human being has his dignity and respect. During the time of war, people are killed and injured. The major trend to physical damage is done to men in comparison to women. But armed conflict ends up having long term effects on a person’s health and existence. Augmented morbidity and mortality are very well known costs of war.
war is nothing but a continuation of political intercourse with a mixture of other means,” we should evaluate war much as we evaluate those other means. Wars occur frequently and can have massive effects on individuals, groups, nations, and international systems. Thus knowledge of the likely consequences of conflict is necessary for those who would use rational-choice models of conflict initiation. Individuals are clearly affected by international conflict, especially war. Some individuals die in war. Others suffer permanently debilitating injuries.
How peace can be achieved?
Peace could possibly be achieved if all people on earth became non judgemental towards each other and accepted eachother as equals. In addition, everyones’s spiritual beliefs,their faith, should be respected, whether they choose to believe in a higher power, or not. Believing in a higher power, in itself, does not guarantee peace because more people have been murdered in the name of god than for any reason in all of history peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict and the freedom from fear of violence. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility , peace also suggests the existence of healthy , peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or internatonal relationship, prosperity in matters of social and economic welfare . peace is something which is vastly misinterpreted and misinterpreted in todays world.
Everyone has their own perceptions about it out of which only a small portion actually come near in addressing “peace” . In my personal opinion peace isn’t just a clever way of showcasing your imposed superficial friendliness while brewing up violent tendencies from within. I believe peace in not just stopping wars….. its something it’s the victory of reality over virtual superiority, the realisation that everyone in the world is equal . this world has seen so many of the traumatizing atrociteis in its lifetime ,as we become awre of our mistakes in the past it becomed the duty of each of us as individual and as youth to change all this and create a better place forour succeeding generation and yes we can do it…..