Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

TUAZON, RUSTY ROGEL M.

10 EINSTEIN
Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter reprsents written or published materials significant and associated to the under study. This helped the researcher enriched the information and knowledge about some specific details regarding analyzing scientific explanation and myths about aliens existence.

To find out the initial records on how the beliefs on Aliens Existence began in terms of
Scientific Explanations
Myths
To differentiate the selected people’s perception about Alien’s Existence
The review of related literature focused on the above mentioned objectives.

Scientific Explanations about Aliens Existence
Many stars in the Universe
According to Seth Shostak from SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute, there is no direct proof for any life beyond Earth, but universe is home to a lot of stars. As stimated by Shostak, there are 1 trillion planets in the Milky Way alone. He said that some of them have undergone and develped life, and eventually what we call sentient life. And if we are the only intelligent beings in the galaxy, of for that matter in the universe, we are truly a miracle (Shostak, n.d.)
One scientist thinks Aliens will need to catch stars to survive.
The future intelligent aliens can survive in the form of collecting, storing and harmessing the power of stars. As the universe continues to expand, an intelligent extraterrestrial civilization will become outlying and in need power for the next 100 billion years or more. Aliens might need to use stars as an alternative source of energy. (Hooper, 2018)
In an article at IFLScience.com, It is said that our universe is expanding because of mysterious dark energy. The major problem is that everything will spread out that no new stars can form, and the universe ends. Aside from collecting the powers of stars, aliens could survive the universe. According to Dan Hooper, They move stars closer together to prolong their existence. “In order to maximize its access to useable energy, a sufficiently advanced civilization would chose to expand rapidly outward, build Dyson Spheres or similar structures around encountered stars, and use the energy that is harnessed to accelerate those stars away from the approaching horizon and toward the center of the civilization,” (Hooper 2018)
Hooper notes that the presence of dark energy in our universe is causing space to expand in accelerating rate. As a result, most stars in other galaxies will move to other. So, It means that we won’t be able to see them anymore and wouldnlt be able to reach them. He suggest that aliens could use spacecrraft to grab stars from anywhere and bring them closer. We have no evidences that an advanced civilizations exists. He added, if aliens were aleady doing this, we will be able to spot them doing it . A lack of stars in one region could be the sign that aliens have already scoop them up personaly.
Water worlds in our solar system
The Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. By about 4.4 billion years ago, the Earth cooled enough for water to exist on it. As we know, water is a key ingredient for life. And liquid water, is commoon in our solar system. According to Elizabeth Howell (2018), on alien worlds, it is also covered by water. Past researchers said that these “Water Worlds” could be unfriendly to our life. They said that they would not allow the minerals and gases cycling which stablizes the climate on Earth. But the new study found out that ocean planets as habitational for quite a long time. Also scientists have found thousands of exoplanets where water exist on its surface. Based on Oxford Dictionaries, These exoplanets are the planest which orbits a star outside the solar system. Nevertheless, scientist aren’t sure about all these conditions for habitability, so far we only know a single world with life: Earth.
The new research, based on more than 1,000 simulations of exoplanets under formation, suggests that water worlds could be habitable if they meet certain conditions, researchers said in the statement. Specifically, these planets would need to have a certain amount of carbon which is the element on which Earth’s life is based. The exoplanet would need a lot of water early in its formation, and the ability to cycle carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean to stabilize the system. The exoplanet also needs to maintain its original elements and minerals than having those elements and minerals dissolve in the ocean and pull out the carbon in the atmosphere.

The research also states that researchers ran simulations for planets around stars that are similar to the sun, the red dwarf stars as their another hotspot to research for life. Because the simulation only assumed a steady light from a star, in which a red dwarf would provide it also. They said that Red dwarfs are dimmer than our sun, but if planets are close enough to the star, they could have water on their surfaces. In that case, the red dwarfs meet the conditions for habitability. However, these stars are also extremely variable and could send out life-killing radiation to their planets. (Howell, 2018)
In 2013, Gale Crater and John Grotzinger announced that they have found a habitable environment, one where substantial amounts of surface water existed billions of years ago.

Followed last September, Water still flows on Mars today that at or very near our surface. For more than a decade, NASA’s strategy in exploring Mars has been to “follow the water”; the agency reasons that wherever there’s water, we might find life. Now, having made the case for water, space agencies are preparing to launch Mars missions whose primary purpose is to search for evidence of biology. And, unlike earlier searches, these missions have a real chance for success. (Bell, n.d.) To see what roles such bio-essential elements might play in the evolution of alien life, the researchers also focused on how accessible they might be on worlds with liquid oceans underneath their frozen surfaces, much like Jupiter’s moon Europa and Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

Life Evolved quickly on Earth
As said previously, Scientists estimated that our planet is a 4.5 billion years old. As cited in the article by CCN.com published by Don Lincoln (2018), Life formed very early in the life of our planet. It wasn’t until oxygen permeated the atmosphere that more complex life could be supported. They said that it was about 540 million years ago that life from which humans evolved came into existence. The fact that it took 3-4 billion years for our kind of cells to evolve suggests this process is slow and not at all guaranteed. It requires an abundant supply of a volatile chemical like oxygen to happen at all. However, we also know that life has survived for about 4 billion years, no matter how many times the universe has tried to erase out. The impact 65 million years ago that killed the dinosaurs was a dramatic event in the history of Earth, but it was dwarfed by the Permian extinction 250 million years ago, when 90% of the species on the planet went extinct. Yet life survived. Under Earth-like conditions, life is hardy.
The evolution of intelligence seems to be rarer. Until humans evolved, no other forms of comparable intelligence existed. It is somewhat arbitrary, but our own species, Homo sapiens, came into existence 200,000 years ago. The earliest species of the genus Homo was Homo habilis and they first evolved around 2 million years ago. By either definition, humanlike intelligence took a long time to appear. Furthermore, if humanity were to go extinct tomorrow, there are no species around that are likely to quickly evolve intelligence. Granted, there are species that are more intelligent than others, but their path to humanlike intelligence is by no means assured. From this, it is possible to provisionally conclude that the evolution of intelligence is rare. (Lincoln, 2018)
According to a study of a team from University of Oxford, Aliens from another world will be shaped by the same evolutionary forces as here on Earth.
According from the “On the Origin of Species” by Charles Darwin, the evolutionary theory is can be used to predict anout alien species. The researchers argue that the only process by which organisms can adapt to the environment of these extraterrestrials is to undergo to natural selection. (Darwin, 1859)
As a human beings result of million years of adaptation, Aliens will similarly be constructed from parts but through time, they came together and to work as one organism. (Levin, 2017) Levin also expalined that:
“Life has so many intricate parts, so much complexity, for that to happen. It’s too complex and too many things working together in a purposeful way for that to happen by chance, as how certain molecules come about. Instead you need a process for making it, and natural selection is that process.”
The another thing that offer another clue as to what kind of aliens we might meet is the existence of Earth-Bound Extremophiles. These are organisms that defy conventionall wisdom about where was life can exist, example for this is the vacuum of space. But researchers are not always agree on the “where” or “how” and “what” of the search for these extraterrestrial life, most of their belief: Alien life must be out there. (Rejcek, 2017)
Life thrives in extreme environments
In an article at Space on CBN News, Many scientrist go on Earth to find life: the cold, dark depths of the ocean; snuggled up to piping-hot hydrothermal vents; buried under the Antartic ice; and in South America’s parched Atacama Desert. As a definition from the Springer.com by Gomez, An extreme environment is a habitat by harsh environmental conditions that are beyond the optimal range for the development of human. And the organisms that lives in extreme environments are extremophiles. Shostak exampled that Mars that is a harsh environment, but some of the microbes found on Earth, including the one shown here found deep in a mine, could survive beneath the surface of the Red Planet. (Shostak n.d.) With these findings, Extremophiles allowed scientists to scale back their list of requirements for extraterretrial life.
So far, all life on Earth has the same ancestry, no matter how extreme the environment. That life is very tenacious, scientists have discovered. Extremophiles have been found in volcanic vents with temperatures reaching far above boiling. And in 2007, the European Space Agency deliberately launched microorganisms on a Foton-M3 spacecraft and exposed them to the harsh vacuum of space. The lifeforms survived.
Life could have happened differently on other planets, however, which makes it difficult for scientists to figure out what to search for. The carbon-based life hosted on Earth may not be the same chain of life formed in other places. (Howell, 2013)
A researcher Belinda Ferrari expanded, Antarctica is one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Yet the cold, dark and dry desert regions are home to a surprisingly rich diversity of microbial communities. The big question has been how the microbes can survive when there is little water, the soils are very low in organic carbon and there is very little capacity to produce energy from the Sun via photosynthesis during the winter darkness. (Ferrari, 2017)
“This new understanding about how life can still exist in physically extreme and nutrient-starved environments like Antarctica opens up the possibility of atmospheric gases supporting life on other planets.” – Belinda Ferrari (2017)
life on other planets might look and be nothing like life on Earth, understanding how life can exist in unusual circumstances will push us forward to concretely discovering alien life and better understanding where and how aliens are most likely to exist. Exoplanets that once may not have even been candidates to hold life might find habitable regions and the potential to hold life. It is apparent that the better we understand life on Earth, the more equipped we are to search for alien life.

E.T. might be calling from afar
Astronomer thinks that their pinpointed the source of a mysterious radio signal from space or a passing comet that nobody knew about. But their colleagues said they’re still skeptical of the explanation, noting that comets don’t emit radio waves in the right way.

On 15th of August 1977, a team of astronomers receive a signal at the Big Ear radio observatory in Ohio State University. The paper circled the data and wrote “Wrote!” in the margin of it. This radio telescope was observing space as a part of their search for Extraterrestrial, but this so-called “Wow” Signal was the most compelling signal. It was enough powerful to push the Big Ear’s monitoring device off the chart. (Bellows, 2014)
The signal did not repeat, and subsequent attempts to find it proved fruitless. It was marked “Wow!” in red pen on a printout that shows the numbers representing the signal.

Back in 1977, the now-dismantled Big Ear telescope was looking for alien signals, in an early iteration of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, or SETI. But no one expected to see anything like the “Wow” signal and the Big Ear telescope heard nothing like it again. Without a repeat signal, it was impossible to tell what it was; even getting a precise location wasn’t easy because the signal was short-lived. It tells that, beyond a certain distance, it’s hard to tell how far away a radio signal is coming from. (Emspak, 2017) But Shostak says that that it is not science, it was E.T.

Some see evidence that Aliens have visited
According to Sean Martin (2017), Aliens have visiting the Earth for thousands of years and nearly caused at the height of the Cold War. From an article by Kelsey McKinney Cold War was actually an international cover-up about extraterrestrial life, there was a nuclear weapons that the U.S held for a war with aliens, Humans was manipulated by someone or something. It is said that the U.S. Government has a real live alien species locked up somewhere. (Mckinney n.d.) There is an individual who got very serious about aliens and that is Tom Delonge. He co-wrote the song title “Aliens Exist”
Many conspiracy theorists consider the so-called “Roswell incident” to be one of the most conspicuous pieces of evidence that the US government has covered up the existence of extraterrestrial life on Earth. They said, the incident happened on July 7, 1947, around miles north of the town of Roswell in New Mexico, debris from a highly classified project used by the US Army Air Force (the precursor to the US Air Force) to detect atomic bomb tests in the Soviet Union, was recovered from a ranch after being reported by ranch worker William Brazel.

Myths about Alien’s Existence
Alien abduction
In the “The skeptic’s Dictionary” by Robert Todd Carrol, About one-third of Americans believe that aliens have visited us. Based on their belief, aliens crashed at Roswell, New Mexico. The U.S, Government recovered the alien craft and it has been privately meeting with aliens in a place known as Area 51. Area 51 is a part of an off-limits military based near the Groom Lake located in Nevada. UFOers are sure that is sure that the place is used to hide aliens. The rising UFO sighting is due to the increase of alien activity here on Earth. The aliens are abducting people in larger numbers they are leaving such signs of their presence in the form of crop circles. (Carrol n.d.) According to Benjamin Radford (2017), Crop circles are strange patterns that appear mysteriously overnight in farmers’ fields. So this is the proof of the people that the government agencies deal with sensitive information such as UFOs and aliens. They also believe that there is a government and media conspiracy to cover up the alien activities and makes them difficult to prove that the aliens have landed.

Whitley Strieber, realized that he had been abducted by aliens after psychotherapy and hypnosis. That why he wrote several books about his experience in alien abduction. Strieber claims that he saw aliens set his roof on fire. He says h has traveled to planets and back on that night. He wants us to believe that he wants us to believe that he and his family can see the aliens and their spacecrafts while others can’t sees nothing. (Carrol n.d.)
Another enthusiast was Dr. John Mack, a Harvard Psychiatrist who wrote books about patients who claimed that been abducted by aliens. He said that his psychiatric patients were not mentally ill and he could think of no better explanation for their stories.
Many who claim that they have been abducted by aliens may be either crazy or telling the truth. It is better to think of them who are sharing a cultural delusion. They said, they are similar to the people who experiences “near-death experience” of going the dark tunnel to thr bright light, or who see Jesus beckoning to them. This experiences which abductees think of as alien abduction experience may be caused by certain brain states. This can be associated with paralysis. Sleep paralysis occurs in the hypnagogic state or the hypnopompic state. The abductees describe their experiences of being unable to move or even speak, they are feeling some sort of presence, feeling fear and even unable to cry out. Sleep paralysis is not for only many alien abduction delusions. Even so, it is also for other delusions including paranormal or supernatural experiences. (Carrol n.d.) Many abductees have a various scars and “scoop mark” on their bodies as part of the proof of abduction. These marks are considered as not extraordinary in any way and could be accounted for by quite ordinary injuries and experiences. For all that, all these evidences for abduction, the physical evidence seems to be the weakest.

UFOs
“Nothing has come from the study of UFOs in the past 21 years that has added to scientific knowledge…further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified in the expectation that science will be advanced thereby.” –Edward U. Condon
According to the Skeptic’s Dictionary by Robert Todd Carroll, a UFO is an unidentified flying object that later on it has been identified either possible or actual alien spacecraft. This includes meteors, disintegrating satellites, flocks of birds, aircraft, lights, weather balloons, and just about anything moving within the visible band of electromagnetism.
They say most of unidentified objects are identified as hoaxes or astronomical events, aircraft, satellites, weather balloons, or other natural phenomena. Some are not resolved because of indecisive evidences. None has been resolved by evidences that aliens have fly over or landed on our planet. UFOlogists assumed that the government is lying and covering up alien landing and communication. Yet there still no evidences for government and the fact that may government officials have lied, contorted the truth and been mistaken when reporting about it to the general public. Pilots or scientists claim that they cannot think of any explanations for some observations is a proof that they have observed alien spacecraft.

UFOs should be noted as usually observed by the sky watcher and most never by professional or amateur astronomer.

According to an article by Sunday Express published by Sean Martin (2018), alien hunters have been put on high alert after a huge UFO was seen hovering around the clouds in the skies above the Philippines. Scott C Waring posted on his blog that an alien space ship was trying to camouflage itself in the clouds. The photo shows clouds with a rainbow light separate through the atmosphere. However, conspiracy theorists are pointing to a large, circular but translucent object in the clouds which they believe is a UFO using a cloaking device. Mr. Waring says that the image which was taken in General Santos, Philippines was awesome UFO hiding above a cloud during sunset and for a few minutes the hiding craft was visible to the naked eye. (Martin, 2018)
The anonymous person who took the image and passed it onto the UFO hunter said that it was unfortunately, had only one phone at hand, the good HD Camera is currently defective. The colors were actually much more intense. However, other self-proclaimed experts believe this is not concrete proof that humanity is looking for in the search for extraterrestrials. (Martin, 2018)

Synthesis
The related literature and studies in this chapter has mapped out relevant topics regarding this study.

With so many stars in our vast universe, it is said that alien life could exist. This include as a scientific explanation about aliens existence. Science said that aliens are collecting and harnessing stars for they to live. They use stars for their alternative energy source. Aliens help the universe to survive. However, the universe is expanding but everything will spread out and no new stars can form. So, the universe ends. Aliens move stars closer together to prolong their life.

Water is the basic unit of life. Moreover, In some other planets water are existing, that qualifies it as a habitable exoplanet. In this research, mentioned that red dwarfs and the planet Mars are qualified.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present. Human beings was the result of million years of adaptation, Aliens will similarly be constructed from parts but through time, they came together and to work as one organism.

Extreme environment is a habitat by harsh environmental conditions that are beyond the optimal range for the development of human. Such organisms, known as extremophiles, thrive in habitats which for other terrestrial life-forms.

A signal received by a radio telescope may be the best evidence yet for extraterrestrial intelligence, This signal so-called “wow” signal was received from Ohio State University’s “Big Ear” radio telescope
The world is most certainly divided on whether or not aliens have actually visited earth. It’s undeniable that there are things on earth that are very difficult to explain, and seem almost impossible to have been completed without the help of an external force of some kind. More than 40,000 Americans have insurance against alien abduction and most British, German and Americans believe in an intelligent life form of some sort.

A term grown out of the alien abduction myths of the late 20th century, But in science, they call is sleep paralysis.

UFOs have come to mean many things to many people. Reports of UFOs, curiosity about their nature and purpose, theories and speculations, disputes and controversies spiral outward until the subject breaks free of narrow scientific considerations. UFOs fly in an atmosphere of implication and possibility as objects of the imagination, subjects for entertainment, humor, commerce, popular belief, and a mystery with something of interest even for people unmoved by aliens or spaceships. One consequence of human interest is human participation in construction of the UFO story.

Post Author: admin