Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

Internally focused.
Customer focused.
Top-down control, bureaucratic structure.
Autonomous self –regulating work units.
Planning and coordination carried/done by management.
Planning and coordination are carried by work teams.
Specialization and narrowly defined jobs.
Jobs are broadly defined and employees possess multiple skills.

Unclear processes and procedures.
Documentation and clarity of core processes and procedures.

Department boundaries defined by functions. (E.g. Engineering, manufacturing, etc.)
Department boundaries determined to leverage competitive advantage (task inter-relationship, customer, product or process focused).

Training focuses on technical skills.
Training focuses on total employee development (e.g. business understanding, teamwork, etc.)
Reward based on individual performance.
Rewards based on contributions to effectiveness team.

Employee are used as tools of management. Employee used as partners.

Alienated and unhappy employees accepted as given of industrial life.
Quality of life of employees is imperative to company.

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