Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

The contribution of academic staff to promote open innovation in Sri Lanka
Chapter one
Introduction
Described as open innovation, the ability to manage these knowledge flows is considered crucial for competition. The open innovation model is based on widespread innovation processes that encompass many actors outside a company’s boundaries while still being managed from within these boundaries CITATION Tom09 l 2057 (Tommaso Buganza, 2009).innovation can be divided as open innovation and closed innovation. Open innovation was defined by chesbroug in 2009 as a combination of internal and external idea as well as internal and external path to market. The open innovation can be divided in to two separate branches as out-side in and in-side out open innovation. “Inbound” open innovation associated with the establishment and management of knowledge links associated with scientific and technical competences between firms and external organisations linked to improving the innovative performance of the firm; and “outbound” open innovation associated with establishing and managing links to commercially exploit technological knowledge CITATION Che3b l 2057 (Chesbrough, (2003b). as increasing competitiveness many organisation deal with out-side in innovation.at the present many firms and organisations have established collaboration program with educational institutional like universities.
In this case a collaboration programme is very important for the relationship between firms and universities .we can identify firms as knowledge user and universities are knowledge producer. This relationship based on the inflows and outflows of the knowledge generated by the open innovation. Indeed, universities have generally publicised their research, with the aim that it would be picked up and developed further, by other researchers and also by the industry. Hence, it can be considered that universities have, by nature, an organisational culture that is close to the outbound (or inside-out) aspect of the Open Innovation process CITATION Lud15 l 2057 (Ludmila Striukova, 2015). According to this new model, a company commercialized its own ideas from university generated.
Hence this research study is mainly addressing main research problem “how can contribute of academic staff to promote open innovation in sri lanka ?” it will be addressing with two others special research questions of as; (1) what are the contribution factors of academic staff to promote open innovation in sri lanka? (2) How these factors contribute to promote open innovation in sri lanka? By addressing above problem ; questions is expected to explain the level of contribution to open innovation from academic staff in sri lanka.

Background of the study
At the present the business environment is more competitive. If company want to increase their profit ; protect their survival they have to do something new there has ability to spell customers demand the organization innovation. In other words, they have to produce innovative products, to meet the changing needs of customer responding to market demands.

Innovation is a process in which valuable ideas are transformed into new forms of added value for the organization, customers, employees and stakeholders” (Dobni, et al., 2015). It is regarded as an on-going attempt to achieve new and unique knowledge and ideas (Subrama-niam & Youndt, 2005). Innovation may involve the discovery of new, environmentally viable, product, services, production processes affordable by people at the lowest cost (Prahalad & Hammond, 2002).the innovation is focus of competitive advantages of the market. In the previous time research & development was valuable part to face competitors in the market place. But at the present competitive is higher according to innovation it can be divided as open innovation and close innovation.

Open innovation is a sub-sect of innovation, it is an interactive process through which new knowledge can easily flow inwards and outwards across firm boundaries and is based on a fundamental assumption that invention and innovation do not certainly have to take place at the same place (Inauen & Schenker-Wicki, 2012). Accordingly, under the new model of open innovation, a company commercializes both its own ideas as well as innovations from other firms and seeks ways to bring its in-house ideas to market by deploying pathways outside its current businesses (Chesbrough, 2003). Henry W Chesbrough, the founder of the concept dis-tinguished the idea into two separate branches that work together under one theme as outside-in and inside-out innovations.

In another way, around inside-out innovation targets commercializing the internal knowledge rather than relying upon internal paths to the markets. In this process companies earn profits by bringing ideas to market, selling intellectual property, and multiplying technology by transferring ideas to the outside environment (Elmquist, et al., 2009). Similar as outside in, inside-out innovation is called outbound innovation and is also divided into two branches as selling and revealing upon the financial transaction involved in (Dahlander & Gann, 2010). Selling attaches with finance earning profits by handing over intellectual property or know-how to external parties. Revealing includes the provision of expertise or knowledge without a financial transaction (Henkel, 2006).

Outside-in open innovation is the situation where organizations welcome external knowledge flows to fostering internal research and development activities. In this process, the customers, suppliers, competitors, cross-sector companies, universities and research institutions are considered as potential sources of ideas (Chesbrough, 2003). The outside-in is also called in-bound innovation is further categorized as acquiring and sourcing (Dahlander & Gann, 2010). Acquiring associates with financial transactions and mostly involves buying of intellectual property, knowledge, skills or acquisition of entire companies whereas sourcing refers to any type of knowledge or ideas being brought into the company without it entailing a financial transaction such as conference participation, observing competitors, linking with universities, crowdsourcing..etc.

In recently many organizations have established collaboration with educational institutions such as universities. The Collaboration between universities and industries is critical for skills development, the generation, acquisition, and adoption of knowledge (innovation and technology transfer), and the promotion of entrepreneurship. The benefits of university industry collaboration are also evident in developing countries. For example, a study in Chile and Colombia shows that collaboration with universities substantially increased the propensity of firms to introduce new products and to patent (Marotta, Blom, and Thorn 2007). The many types of university industry links have different objectives, scopes, and institutional arrangements .Collaboration may be more or less intense and may focus on training or research activities. Collaboration may be formal or informal, from formal equity partnerships, contracts, research projects, patent licensing, and so on, to human capital mobility, publications, and interactions in conferences and expert groups, among others (Hagedoorn, Link, and Vonortas 2000).

The universities can be linked with the open innovation by building relationship and transfer the university knowledge (intellectual properties). Under the relationship we can identify two sub elements. Those are Research partnerships and Research services. Only other hand, under the transfer we can identify Commercialization of intellectual property and Informal interaction as sub elements. Such relationships are different from generic links’ such as graduate recruitment or the use and exploitation of scientific publications or university-generated pa-tents within firms. Yet within the context of open innovation’ it is precisely such relationship-intensive links that are of particular interest. It is therefore legitimate to ask what we know about such relationships, what forms they appear and what effects they have on innovation processes. Hence, the study will be focus on to finding out the contribution level of Sri Lankan university system to promote open innovation.

Statement of the problem
At present many organizations have established collaborations with educational institutions. The companies have limited access to all required competencies, skills, equipment ect. Only other hand, it is important for universities that their scientific results are commercialized, that financial support for research precedes, and research project and their reputation are enhanced.

The university can linked with open innovation as transfer and relationship. Hence, the study will be focus on to finding out the contribution level of Sri Lankan university system to promote open innovation with the reference to regional state universities in Sri Lankan.

Research questions
01. What are the contribution factors of academic staff to promote open innovation in sri lanka?
02. How these factors contribute to promote open innovation in sri lanka?
Objectives of the study
To identify the contribution factors of academic staff to promote open innovation in sri lankaTo identify how these factors contribute to promote open innovation in sri lanka?
Hypotheses of the study
Hypothesis is a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statements (Sekaran & Bougie, 2012). It is derived from the theory on which conceptual model was based and it can be expressed either directionally or non-directionally. Based on the literature survey, following hypothesis was developed to address the research questions.

H1: research partnership of the academic staff has a support on open innovation in sri lankaH2: research services of the academic staff has a support on open in-novation in sri lankaH3: informal interaction of the academic staff has a support on open innovation in sri lankaH4: commercialization of intellectual property of the academic staff has a support on open innovation in sri lankaSignificance of the Study
The attempt in producing innovative products and services is crucial function for the development of a country. Innovation is considered as an important component or the engine of modern economies to survive within the global competition through introduction of new products, services and processes. In this open innovation approach, it stresses the position of the interrelationship among the major actors to create and diffuse new knowledge and technology for the commercial benefits. Among the major actors, the universities are now moving to show an essential role that complementary from traditional teaching roles to more complex and active engagements with industry and other institutions (public and private), in terms of research works, sharing infrastructure, technology transfer through skilled technical personnel etcetera. Therefore, the understanding of the significant strength of the existing relationships between university and other actors is a key to contribute to better performance of the open innovation. The main purpose of this study is to understand the impact of Sri Lankan university system to promote open innovation. Result of this study has a significance value to enhance the effectiveness of open innovation within the organization through offering required strategy implications.
Scope of the Study
This study does not selected all government universities in sri lanka and also researcher has selected most important variables only .the entire research is based on sample collection, therefore the result is arrived according to the sample.

There are 15 national universities and 3 campuses directly governed and funded by the UGC and sri lanka government. Population represent the all government universities academic staff in sri lanka. The sample consists of 60 lectures from 5 regional universities in sri lanka.

Limitation of the study
The research is only focus on the 05 regionol state universities in sri lanka.In fact there are 15 state universities in Sri Lanka.
In addition to above main limitations, followings can be identified as the limitation influence to study.

-Lack of available and /or reliable data
-Lack of prior research studies on the topic
-Cultural and other type of bias
-Self reported data is limited by the it rarely can be independently verified
Structure of the Report
This study consists with five chapters. First chapter is Introduction and it involve with the introduction, background of the study, problem statement, research question objectives of the study, hypotheses, significant of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, finally structure of the study, and chapter summary. Second chapter is Literature Review and, it discusses the introduction, theoretical framework, empirical framework, justification and chapter summary. Third chapter is Methodology. It discusses introduction, research design, conceptual framework, research variables, hypothesis, population and sample, data collection procedures, data analysis and presentation, and finally chapter summary. Fourth chapter discusses Results and Discussion. It presents the results for overall model. Fifth chapter is Conclusion and Recommendations. It discusses the conclusion and recommendations regarding for the study.

Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY Chesbrough, H. ((2003b). “The logic of open innovation: managing intellectual property. california management review, 33-58.

Ludmila Striukova, T. R. (2015). University-industry knowledge exchange: An exploratory study of Open Innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 18(No. 4,), 471-492.

Tommaso Buganza, R. V. (2009). Open innovation process to inbound knowledge Collaboration with universities in four leading. European Journal of Innovation Management, 306-325.

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