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Beginning the Academic Essay

Self-Efficacy and Social Responsibility Relating to Academic EffortMorgan Phillips
Prairie View A&M University
Abstract
College students academic success has always been studied and measured but not specifically targeted at a specific race. In this study it was examined if self-constructs can correlate to one’s academic success. Self-constructs in this study are self-efficacy, social responsibility and academic effort. African American college students in undergraduate classes answered three different forms of survey questions.

Self-Efficacy and Social Responsibility Relating to Academic EffortWhen discussing the retention rate amongst African American college students compared to other races there are many factors that is not mentioned or discussed. The question of social influences and expectations relating to academic achievement, especially in the African American community should be examined.
In 2013, the graduation for Black students were 46.8% while the white students’ graduation rate was 64.7%. This should not be the case if everyone receives “the American dream” lifestyle. In the African American community social influence and expectation are two big components that are rarely viewed and taken in account of the dynamics of a young African American college student.
Academic success in college is not the same and cannot compare to high school academic success. There are different factors that are present as a college student being because you now can be involved and take part in what you want to without parent consent. It brings a whole new sense of responsibility that some students can thrive in or some may not. So, imagine how minorities have to function in a college environment with other factors that affects them outside of college. College students do have ultimate control of their environment but do college students realize the factors externally and internally that will and can affect one’s academic success.
Why are African American graduation rates exceptionally solid at some high-positioning universities and significantly weaker at other best positioned schools? Clearly, the racial atmosphere at a few schools and colleges is more positive toward African Americans than at different grounds such as historically black college colleges and universities. HBCUs, for instance, make its grounds a glad place for African Americans. Interestingly, the University of California at Berkeley has had its offer of racial turmoil as of late. The modest number of African American students on the campus because of the abolishment of race-touchy confirmations has influenced numerous African Americans on the Berkeley campus to feel unwelcome. This presumably adds to the low African American graduation rate at Berkeley.
Many schools and colleges with high African American graduation rates have set up introduction and maintenance projects to enable African American students to adjust to the way of life of being at a predominantly white institution. Different universities have a higher graduation rate because they make their African American student population feel a sense of belonging. Geographic location does play a major role in African American students graduation rates. The presence of a strong and relatively large African American population of students on campus is vital. These facts are things that everyone already knows and students are aware of.
This study can be relevant in realizing that a student not having enough self-efficacy and social responsibility on or off-campus can determine how much a student is willing to put effort in their academics. Academic success is always measured but the amount of effort put in is never observed. Nobody wants to discuss how environmental factors can affect the level of self-efficacy someone has. Social responsibility is never discussed as well when it is regarding how having a responsibility within your school or household can affect how much academic effort is put into your schoolwork.

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Social Responsibility
To clarify why individuals adjust it is useful to recognize two sorts of social impact: regularizing social impact and educational social impact. Standardizing social impact depicts conduct that has been driven by the want to accomplish an esteemed, intelligent self-personality and to pass on a specific impression to others. The impact depends on individuals’ inspiration to pick up endorsement and evade dismissal by acclimating with others’ desires. Interestingly, instructive social impact emerges from helpful and substantial data that another’s assessment or conduct gives to enhance a choice or judgment.

Double thought process perspectives of social impact have just been proposed in a few areas, showing up in congruity inquire about, bunch polarization research, and influence explore. Feedback of such perspectives has solely centered around the issue of how the two kinds of impact can be independently estimated and how they associate and correlate with each other. In numerous similarity contemplates people’s conduct is analyzed under two conditions: In the general population condition, people act under the observation of others, though in the private condition, reactions are given secretly. In the event that conduct in general society condition contrasts from conduct in the private condition, this is typically ascribed to notable convictions of the individual being socially impacted by the way that others will emphatically assess his or her congruity conduct. In any case, standardizing social impact can’t be avoided in the private condition.
Social desires of others can likewise develop when their quality is envisioned, so they hold crosswise over open and private settings. Additionally, preparing thinks about have recommended that people’s inclination to adjust can even emerge consequently, outside cognizant mindfulness or willful control.

Social influence is based on the social norms theory which states that “our behavior is influenced by incorrect perceptions of how other members of our social groups think and act” (Berkowitz, 2004, p. 5). College students do not want to behave or think out of the norm due to the fact that everyone is trying to find a sense of belonging. Misperception is the disparity between actual behaviors and what individuals perceive the norm for such behaviors to take place.

The idea that college students misperceive the frequency of high-risk behavior is well established in the literature (Berkowitz, 2004) and has been a guide for promoting college health among several colleges and universities (Berkowitz, 2004; Keeling, 2000). But, that is one of the matters in question. So, there are two major questions that pop up in my mind, why social influence only is measured in college and not when someone is growing up and why is it only when it comes to substance abuse usage?
Social influence in the African American community can only have a negative or positive impact. You can take others situations and learn from it or mimic it. Social influence can cloud your better judgement or make you do things that you try so hard to not to partake in, whether it is your environment at home or not.
Self-Efficacy
In the article, “Differences between African American and European first year college students” they expanded on the social cognitive theory. According to social cognitive theory (SCT), outcome expectations expectancies about the future results of one’s behavior work in conjunction with self-efficacy to influence achievement. However, self-efficacy one’s belief in his or her own ability to accomplish a task is suspected to be the stronger predictor of achievement (Bandura 1977, 1986).
The focal point of analysts has been on the relations between self-viability and scholastic accomplishment to the relative disregard of the relations between results desires what’s more, accomplishment. Nonetheless, it has been discovered that negative result desires are identified with bring down evaluations for dominatingly European American school tests. Moreover, result desires have been appeared to foresee scholastic execution past the commitment of self-viability. Notwithstanding the way that result desires impact scholastic accomplishment, the impact of ethnicity on this connection has not been analyzed. Since ethnic minorities may show results that are pitifully associated with their execution, result desires might be particularly vital for this gathering.
A few discoveries from the locus of control writing would propose negative result desires would conceivably be identified with higher scholarly accomplishment for African
Americans. van Laar’s (2000) look into recommends that understudies with bring down anticipations (more negative result desires) have higher inspiration. Her method of reasoning is that these lower anticipations are ascribed to outside causes rather than inside ones. The understudies trust that their negative results are not because of their own exertion or capacities however are simply the aftereffect of something outside of the self, for example, poor instructors or segregation. Thus their inspiration increments as they endeavor to overcome these hindrances.

A social cognitive factor that might be instrumental in clarifying the ethnic contrasts in scholastic accomplishment is result desires, which as indicated by SCT are understudies’ hopes about the future consequences of their conduct (Bandura 1984, 1986; Lent et al. 1994, 1996). SCT recommends that result desires may impact accomplishment since individuals are more averse to endeavor to accomplish their objectives if they feel that their endeavors won’t deliver wanted results, for example, decent evaluations, graduation, or a fruitful career. Ethnic minorities may have more negative result desires since they might probably encounter unforeseen negative results because of components, for example, ethnic or financial separation (Lent et al. 1994, 1996).
In a circumstance in which a partial individual is assessing an ethnic minority’s execution, regardless of performing great on an undertaking, the minority may get negative criticism. This criticism would be viewed as a negative result. At the surface level, it appears these negative result desires would probably bring down their inspiration. Notwithstanding, if negative result desires are identified with view of prejudice and segregation, it is likely that one will have outer attributions for these disappointments. Outer attributions show up to shield disappointment from having a negative effect of ethnic minorities’ self-viability and in reality work to expand understudy inspiration to buckle down and conquer deterrents. Since ethnic minorities will probably have encounters in which they see their negative results are a consequence of outer variables, their result desires might be more vital in deciding their accomplishment than their self-viability.

In this study the assessed self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and study time. There were a total of 187 first-year college students. 85 of those students were African American while 102 of them were European American. As found in numerous different investigations of scholarly accomplishment, European American students had higher SAT scores and additionally high school and college GPAs than African American students. These discoveries are not astounding because of the substantial volume of writing that keeps on supporting the presence of an accomplishment gap. Higher scholarly self-efficacy was correspondingly identified with better scholarly accomplishment for both African Americans and European Americans and there was not a critical ethnic distinction in levels of self-adequacy.

Academic Effort
Since the beginning of psychological research, expectation of academic performance has been of high importance to analysts. This is because of the significance of academic performance in the life of each individual, it limits the scope of conceivable openings for work, and in addition vocation decisions. Higher instructive level is regularly an essential for all the more requesting occupations, which can likewise prompt more prominent money related results. In addition, a measure of academic achievement can likewise assume an imperative part in the activity application process, as a wellspring of data about the competitor’s earlier performance. In general, it could be expressed that the instructive level accomplished assumes a part in the personal satisfaction and prosperity of a person.
One critical and imperative line of research identified with profession and professional improvement has been inspecting how both psychological and non-cognitive components influence the characteristic and outward rewards that are related with profession achievement (Ozer and Benet-Martínez, 2005). Inborn prizes identified with profession can be conceptualized as intrigue and happiness, while outward rewards are regularly conceptualized as installment or employer stability. Research identified with subjective components has concentrated essentially on general mental ability (GMA) and its solid association with outward profession results, for example, work execution and word related accomplishment (Schmidt and Seeker, 2004). The examination that has been finished inspecting the part of intellectual factors, for example, GMA and characteristic vocation results has discovered just a little to unassuming relationship, proposing that GMA is a vastly improved indicator of extraneous vocation achievement (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, and Barrick, 1999).

Writing on mental connects of academic performance in post-auxiliary instruction shows that there is a settled connection between scholarly capacities and academic performance, that individual contrasts in identity can clarify extra difference in academic performance, and that general knowledge may be a significant indicator of academic performance also. Other than mental individual contrasts, secondary school achievement has customarily been utilized as a part of research to anticipate academic performance, for the most part operationalized as grade point average (GPA) or accordingly in state administered tests, (for example, SAT in the USA). Secondary school GPAs has likewise been broadly utilized as college affirmation criteria (Gerdes, 1994).

Academic performance has been estimated in various examinations, however analysts don’t concur about its definition. Furnham and Chamorro-Premuzic recommended this was because of nature with the idea. The most straightforward definition would be that academic performance is the accomplishment of independence formal training (rudimentary, optional or tertiary instruction). Likewise with irregularity in the meaning of academic performance, analysts have conceptualized it diversely in various investigations: for instance, as GPA, first-year examination scores, last year examination scores, course performance or institutionalized PISA testing scores.
Nonetheless, analysts frequently explore the connection of aptitudes or identity attribute scores to understudies’ scores in various tests, yet once in a while have data on understudies’ more extensive academic accomplishment, for example, college graduation, which is a combined after effect of all the academic errands that understudies need to satisfy preceding acquiring a degree.

Research Questions/Hypotheses
Social responsibility, self-efficacy and academic effort are three factors, external and internal, that affect how students perform academically. As a researcher the question ‘Does self-efficacy and social responsibility affect African American college students academic effort?’ comes as a simple question but it is more complex. There are two hypotheses. The non-directional hypotheses is ‘self-efficacy and social responsibility effects academic effort of the African American students’. While the directional hypotheses is ‘lack of self-efficacy and social responsibility can affect an African American college students academic effort in a negative way’.

Methods
My approach to understanding the correlation of social responsibilities and self-efficacy effecting academic achievement among African American college students is anchored in qualitative methodology using a questionnaire survey. Data from the study is a collaboration of three different existing case studies. The case studies all represented a stigma that students have no matter their ethnicity. In a qualitative study is very important to discuss the researchers standing as a person. I am an African American, 21-year old, female college student. My education is at Prairie View A;M University which is a HBCU, Historical Black Colleges and Universities. The purpose of this study is to help any person who works in any type of school setting how internal and external factors can affect African American college students. This is not discussed enough or taken for account as often as it should be. Moreover, me attending predominately African American schools all of my life I have seen how these factors can affect people but could not analyze specifically.
Participants
This study was conducted with participants from Stephen F. Austin University (SFA), Howard University (HU), Huston-Tillotson University (HTU) and Prairie View A;M University (PVAMU) all located in the United States. Three of these schools are HBCUs, they are Howard University, Huston-Tillotson University and Prairie View A;M University, and the predominately white institution is Stephen F. Austin University. There were a total of 49 participants in this study, s total of 24.5% (12 total) of them are male and 75.5% (37 total) are female.
Participants voluntarily took the survey. The participants received the link of the survey through me sending it by text message and explaining to them how important it was and those I sent the link of my survey to tell their friends at the schools that they attend to take it. All participants agreed to the consent form that was on the survey. Participants were asked about their demographics. There were three surveys that were used.
My participants were 46 African Americans (93.9%), 1 European (2.0%), 1 Asian (2.0%) and 1 Hispanic (2.0%). Classification was taken into account also with 10 freshman (20.4%), 11 sophomores (22.4%), 14 juniors (28.6%), 11 seniors (22.4%) and 3 graduate students (6.1%). Age was surveyed as well, there are 27 participants (55.1%) who are in the age of 18-20, 18 (36.7%) that were between the ages of 21-23, and 4 (8.2%) that lie between the age of 24-26.

Measures/Operational Variables
Self-efficacy in this research is meant to measure how someone feels about how they can deal with and execute certain performance attainments. Self-efficacy is very vital to everyone’s daily life, not just college students. Social responsibility in this research is measured as how does the students handle obligations that can be helpful to their school, if they are active within their school. This also measures how responsible they are as a person in general. Academic effort is plain and simple how much effort someone puts in their schoolwork.
Self-efficacy and social responsibility can tell how much someone actually will put effort into their academics. Self-efficacy and individuals having social responsibility are two big factors in the African American culture that we as a people lack in and we do not discuss how it is needed to be instilled at an early age.

Procedure
Participants were sent a link to a survey. All participants agreed to the consent form. The 49 participants represents students from different ethnicities, ages and levels of education but they all measure how an actual student feels toward that subject. This is a descriptive research. The dependent variable is academic achievement and the two independent variables are social responsibility and self-efficacy.

The participants, as previously stated, were all given a consent form which they agreed to. They were all asked the same demographic questions such as age, gender, ethnicity, grade point average and classification. The sample was targeted at anyone who is currently enrolled in any college or university. The data was collected by me with sending the link to numerous people I know and they as well sent it to people they knew in different organizations at their universities. The participants answered a total of three different surveys. The GSE Self-Efficacy Questionnaire which measures self-efficacy. The Concern for Appropriateness Scale measures social responsibility. The third and last scale was the Academic Competence Evaluation which measures academic effort.

Data Analysis
The data shows that a total of 34 people (61.37%) total have a current grade point average of 3.0 or higher. As previously stated, majority of the participants in this study identified themselves as an African American. Majority were females. There was a two-tail test to compute the data. The data is comparing grade social responsibility and self-efficacy to academic effort. Grade point average is compared to the academic effort scale.
Social responsibility has a significance of .70 in relation to academic effort. While, self-efficacy has a significance of .90 in relation to academic effort. This significance shows that my directional hypotheses of self-efficacy and social responsibility playing a role in African Americans academic effort is correct. Even though, it is a very slight correlation it does correlate.

Limitations and Implications
Limitations
There were several limitations within my research. One of my limitations is that I used survey. Surveys receive data by asking individuals questions. Those inquiries are intended to gauge some theme of intrigue. We need those estimations to be as dependable and legitimate as would be prudent, with a specific end goal to believe in the discoveries and in our capacity to sum up past the present example and setting. Unwavering quality alludes to the degree to which questions bring out reproducible or reliable answers from the respondent. Surveys are not the most reliable method because of how legitimate
Legitimacy alludes to the degree to which the inquiries are really getting at what we need them to quantify. The connection amongst unwavering quality and legitimacy can be naturally observed utilizing the similitude of an objective containing a progression of concentric rings reaching out from the ”bulls eye”. A solid and substantial measure would resemble a firmly bunched gathering of shots all in the bulls-eye; a dependable yet invalid measure would resemble a firmly bunched gathering of shots at the objective outskirts; a legitimate yet problematic measure would resemble a dispersing of shots everywhere throughout the objective; and an inconsistent and invalid measure would resemble a dissipating of shots crosswise over just a single side of the objective.

Another limitation is my sample size being small. Voluntary response bias is another inconvenience that accompanies little sample sizes. In the event that you post a review on your kitchen cleaner site, at that point just few individuals approach or information about your study, and it is likely that the individuals who do partake will do as such on the grounds that they feel emphatically about the subject. Along these lines, the after effects of the review will be skewed to mirror the suppositions of the individuals who visit the site.
Implications
As I have stated before, this is a study that should continue and also more attention to go to. This study could help two communities, the African American household and college students. Those in college can realize that if they were to pick up social responsibilities majority would realize that it could have the potential to make them want to do and be better academically as well as for their community. This study could help the African American community by helping the parents of young children realize how they can help their child become successful academically and socially within their community. This could decrease crime and drug rates because more children will be doing things positively.

Conclusion
In conclusion my research, although had some limitations, can help improve different communities not only the African American community. Self-efficacy is important to have and it should be instilled in all children so therefore they can take on social responsibility and become someone in their community that everyone looks up to. Academic effort is something that an individual will not have to worry about if that individual has a high sense of self-efficacy. African American communities can benefit tremendously in academia with high self-efficacy and social responsibility.

References
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Appendix
Consent Form
Consent Form
Social Influence, Expectations and Academic Achievement
 
DEAR STUDY PARTICIPANT:
 You are invited to participate in a research study of Influence, Expectation and Academic Achievement.

You were selected as a possible participant because you are a student at Prairie View A&M University.

We ask that you read this form and ask any questions you may have before agreeing to be in the study.

 
This study is being conducted by Morgan Phillips.

 
Background Information
 The purpose of this study is: How does social influences and expectations effect academic achievement among African American college students? This will expand on how and if social influences and expectations from others effect academic motivation among not only college students but African American college students.

 
 
Procedures:
 If you agree to participate in this study, we will ask you to do the following things:
 
Answering questions and scales.

 
 
Confidentiality:
 The records of this study will be kept private. In all reports resulting from this study, we will not include any information that will make it possible to identify you as a participant.  Research records will be stored securely and only researchers will have access to the records.

 
Voluntary Nature of the Study:
Participation in this study is voluntary. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your current or future relations with Prairie View A&M University. If you decide to participate, you are free to not answer any question or withdraw at any time without affecting those relationships.

 
Contacts and Questions:
The researchers conducting this study are: Morgan Phillips.

You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you are encouraged to contact the Principal Investigator at [email protected]

If you have any questions or concerns regarding this study and would like to talk to someone other than the researcher(s), you are encouraged to contact Donna Pulkrabek, Director of Research Compliance in the Office for Research and Graduate Studies, P.O. Box 519; MS 2800   Prairie View, Texas 77446 Phone 936.261.1588    Fax 936.261.3528.

 
You will be given a copy of this information to keep for your records.

 
Statement of Consent:
 
I have read the above information. I have asked questions and have received answers. I consent to participate in the study.

 
GSE Self-Efficacy Questionnaire

Academic Competence Evaluation Scale

Concern for Appropriateness Scale

Table 1
Race
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid African American 46 93.9 93.9 93.9
White 1 2.0 2.0 95.9
Asian 1 2.0 2.0 98.0
Hispanic 1 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 49 100.0 100.0 Table 2
Demographics
Age
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 18-20 27 55.1 55.1 55.1
21-23 18 36.7 36.7 91.8
24-26 4 8.2 8.2 100.0
Total 49 100.0 100.0 Table 3
Gender
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 12 24.5 24.5 24.5
Female 37 75.5 75.5 100.0
Total 49 100.0 100.0 Table 4
GPA
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 4.0-3.5 13 26.5 26.5 26.5
3.4-3.0 23 46.9 46.9 73.5
2.9-2.5 11 22.4 22.4 95.9
2.4-2.0 2 4.1 4.1 100.0
Total 49 100.0 100.0 Table 5
Classification
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Freshman 10 20.4 20.4 20.4
Sophomore 11 22.4 22.4 42.9
Junior 14 28.6 28.6 71.4
Senior 11 22.4 22.4 93.9
Graduate Student 3 6.1 6.1 100.0
Total 49 100.0 100.0

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