Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

Natasha Putri Irianti165311021
Theoretical Framework
Theoretical framework discusses the theories related to the topic in order to develop the production of the project. There are several theories that will support this project; tourism, marketing, video production, script writing, promotional language, poem, voice over, subtitling, and editing.

Tourism
According to Tourism South Australia (1989), tourism is an economic and social activity in regard to the pleasure that visitors gained by interacting with a natural and host environment (cited in the Australian tourism source, p. 187). Burkart and Medlik (1974) stated, “Tourism denotes the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at these destinations. Much of this movement is international in character and much of it is a leisure activity” (cited in the Australian tourism source, p. 195).
The theories above show that the concept of tourism itself is the same; the enjoyable activity. However, based on the statement, it can be seen that tourism is much more an activity to seek pleasure. Tourism has an important role on the economy aspect of a country because tourism can become an income creation industry. “Tourism primarily relates to leisure and business travel activities which infusion of new money from the visitor into the regional economy” (Burkart and Medlik, p.225). These theories are the basic knowledge of this project.

Tourism, one of the growing industries, must be marketed more serious. Shodh Ganga defines the tourism marketing as “… the systematic and coordinated efforts exerted by the National Tourist Organizations and the tourist enterprises at international, national and local levels to optimize the satisfaction of tourists, groups and individuals, in view of the sustained tourism growth” (cited in Shodh Ganga, 2006, p. 80). As a complex industry, tourism consists of miscellaneous activities which produce the ‘tourist product’. Tourist product can be analyzed in terms of attractions, facilities and accessibility. (cited in Shodh Ganga, 2006, p.83).

The explanation of tourism product gives the ideas in choosing the subject of the video; tourist attraction. “Attractions are those elements in the tourist product which determine the choice of a particular tourist to visit one particular destination rather than another. Attractions could be in the form of areas of archaeological interest, historical buildings, scenic beauty, events etc. “(cited in Shodh Ganga, 2006, p. 83).

The main marketing functions in tourism sector include:
1. Market research
2. Product formulation and development
3. Analysis and selection of target markets
4. Distribution networks
5. Product promotion
The product promotion, the fifth function of marketing in tourism, will be the focus of this project; promoting several tourists attractions in Ternate. Promotion makes target audiences more knowledgeable and interesting with the product so that they can decide whether to visit or not. Due to promotion is a part of marketing strategy, the way how to promote and the media used must be considered. There are various promotional medias that can be used to promote a product; newspaper, brochure, film, video and exhibition. Each of them has weaknesses and strengths. It must be pointed out that travel customers want to get information, entertainment, and inspiration at the same time, marketers need to make promotion tool that contents builds an emotional relation to the costumer itself. To reach that goal, in this project, making a promotional video is the best way to do. The target audience can get both visual and audio information. According to Forrester Research, “A minute of video works 1.8 million words”. It shows that a video is better than the other promotional media to satisfy targets gain information and entertainment needs.
Video Production
According to Millerson (2008) video production can be defined as the process of producing video content concerned with non-broadcast program making. Although the budget in video production is not expensive as televisions production, it still gain millions people’s interest. For instance, YouTube, as the most popular video-sharing website, proves that a lot of people looking at video productions every time.
A video-production has four main steps: pre-production, production, post-production, and distribution.
Pre-ProdutionThe pre-production is the preliminary phase in the process. Pre-production includes all of the preparations of the video production. This includes scriptwriting, scheduling, logistics, and other administrative duties. This phase needs longer time than the other process. Start with developing the message and concept for the project, then continued by writing a script. According to Hepburn (n.d.) the defitinion of script writing, or also called as screenwriting, is the art and craft of writing scripts for mass media such as feature films, television productions or video games. These are the steps of script writing:
Find a small idea
Explore the structure
Define your world, character and problem
4. Beat it out
5. Write the first draft
6. Find a critical friend
7. Write the second draft
8. Write the third draft
The script of the video produced in this project is aimed to inform and to persuade. Accordingly, in writing the script of this video there are several language used in order to develop the content. Here are the several features of the languages of advertisement used:
Hyperbole
Hyperbole is as exaggeration statement used to gain audience interest. The sample of hyperbole used in this script is “Samaladaha Beach is the ultimate diving paradise”
Short Sentences
Short sentences mean short, brief, and concise sentence which functions to form a comprehensive statement. The sample is “What a view!”
Imperatives
An imperative sentence show the expressions to ask requests, demands, or instructions; or, shares wishes or invitations for others. The sample is “Let’s travel!”
Simple and Colloquial language
The expressions used in informal way, such as “Well”.

Avoidance of negatives
Showing and telling the positive side will encourage people to visit the places. The sample is:
Negative: “This place has not been famous yet”
Positive: “Only few people know about this hidden paradise”
Familiar language
In this style, second person pronouns used in delivering the message and suggesting a friendly attitude, such as “You only can see this traditional festival once in a year”.

Present Tense
Mostly, the script of this video will be written by using simple present tense to deliver the message; however, there will some other tenses too, such as simple past tense to describe a history and simple future tense to convince the viewers.
Poetry
Wordsworth (1976: 45), “Poetry is a spontaneous outflow of powerful feelings”. Sweetkind (1964) sees poetry as a reflection of a number of complex linguistic and psychological elements such as senses, images, emotions, and the like. From the discussions poetry, in other words, poetry can be defined as the emotions, attitudes and thoughts that the writer wants to express through the utterances.These are the elements of a poem that should be noticed:
Voice
Voice is utterances that used as the way poem is delivered to the reader.

Stanza
Stanza is a combination of lines or paragraph in a poem. It functions as a paragraph in an essay. Each stanza contains a single idea.
Sound
A poem uses sound such as rhyme, repetition, refrain, alliteration, onomatopoeia, consonance, assonance.
Rhythm
Rhythm is the pattern of beats or stresses in a poem.
Figures of speech
Figures of speech or in another words called figurative language is a rhetorical device that achieves a special effect by using words in a distinctive way.
The discussion is very substantial in developing a short poem that will be included on the opening of the video.
Production
Capturing the content of the video and filming the subject are the main points in this phase. The complexity of the production affects the timeline for the production step which includes cinematography, directing, audio, and lighting. The key success of production process is a good team work among the crews. It is important to be noted that in this step, everything should be organized and scheduled to meet a desired deadline.
Post Production
Post-production is a phase of organizing and combining the video clips and other necessary elements to form a whole video product which has a complete stories. The tasks includes this step are video editing, voice over, dubbing, and subtitling. Mastering a computer skills is a key of this step. Based on the concept of this video project, only three aspects; video editing, voice over and subtitling that will become the technique used in this video project
Editing
If editing is done well, it will be largely unnoticed by the viewing audience. Editing is both an art and a science; learning some of the rules will enhance your ability to edit, but using editing to tell well-crafted stories takes practice to learn. Kathy Bruner, Producer and Teacher
Editing is a process to blend the necessary materials, such as graphics, music, sound effects, and special effects are added to the footage that has been shot. It affects the viewers significantly of what they see and hear. The effectiveness of production depends on the editing stage.
Adobe Premiere Pro, one of the great video editing software, will be used to help the editing process of this video. Besides it is easy to use, it provides a lot of wonderful features.
Subtitling
Subtitling becomes one of essential parts in media because every form of video needs subtitling in multiple languages. It can either a form of written translation of a dialogue in a foreign language, or a written rendering of the dialog in the same language, with or without added information to help viewer to understand every scene with the spoken or written content.

These are the basic principle criteria of subtitling according to Permondo (n.d.):
The cutting of the subtitle, the separation of the two lines, must not interrupt any phrase. A noun or adjective must not be separated in two different lines, nor a noun and a verb, as it must be a natural separation.

A short hyphen is used (-) in conversations to indicate that two people are speaking, with a hyphen on each line of the subtitle when someone else is speaking.

Italics are used for voices in off, and for songs and audio away from the scene of electronic devices.

Quotation marks (“”), recognised abbreviations and figures are used, and where possible capital letters are avoided (used for titles, and signs or written content in the image). On this video, the technique used is the same language captioning, without translation the dialogue spoken. The purpose is to make sure that the viewers get the appropriate meaning of the narration.
Voice-Over
Voice over is a recording spoken by someone, without an accompanying visual image of that person, placed over a film or video in order to deliver information. Documentaries commonly use voice-overs, as there is usually a voice in the background explaining a scene.
According to Voice Overs : How do I begin? book, these are types of voice over:
Commercials: One of the most common forms of voice overs are seen on television commercials. Nearly every commercial has a voice over to help carry along the story the commercial is trying to tell. Often times, commercial gigs are difficult to land and you will likely need to gain experience in other types of voice overs.

Radio Ads ; Segments: Much like television commercials, radio ads and segments typically require a fair amount of voice over experience. Radio is still the most consumed form of media and these ads and segments have the potential to reach millions of listeners, depending on the station and market. 
Narration: Whether for a documentary, or company used training material, narration voice overs can be both large or small projects. Local narratio voice overs, for example, can be a great way to break through into the voice over industry and build you voice acting resume. 
Documentaries, historical material, biographical content, and travel programming are another form of narrative voice over.

From the theories above, the narration voice over becomes the technique in recording the voice over on this video.
Distribution
After having done all steps of producing a wonderful video, it must be published so that it can be seen and promoted to many people. In this era, digital marketing is an effective way to promote a product. One of the most popular tools nowadays is YouTube. Besides that, it is easy to be accessed and does not cost a lot of money. Due to those reasons, YouTube will be chosen as a tool to promote this video to people.
To sum up, this project applies the theories of tourism, marketing, tourism marketing, video production, script writing, editing video, voice over, subtitling and languages for advertising. The tourism marketing theory functions to develop the conceptual thinking of this project; nevertheless, other theories theories relate to the main goal of this project, making a promotional video, both in technical application and language used.

REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bonnet, L. (1997). The Australian tourism source: The definitive book of Australian travel products and services. Australia: PTY.

Burkart, A.J. ; Medlik, S. (1975). Tourism. Bristol: William Heinemann Ltd.

Hepburn, S. (n.d.). Script writing process: Screenwriting and Performance
Retrieved from http://filmg.co.uk/files/downloads/Scripting-Resource-Notes.pdf.

Kgobe,D.M. (1994). Content, form and technique of traditional and modern praise poetry in Northern Sotho. Retrieved from http://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/17072
Millerson, G. ; Owens, J. (2008). Video production handbook. Oxford: Focal Press.
Nordquist, R. (2018). Top figures of speech. Retrieved fromhttps://www.thoughtco.com/top-figures-of-speech-1691818Ramadhan, Z.N. (2011). Great Garut. Unpublished Diploma III Final Project Report, Bandung, Indonesia: English Department, Politeknik Negeri Bandung.
Shodh Ganga. (2015). Tourism Marketing. Retrieved from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/8475/12/12_chapter%204.pdf
Permondo (n.d.). Subtitling. Retrieved from http://www.permondo.eu/volunteers/introduction-to-subtitling/ Mondo Agit agency

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