Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

INTELLIGENT BUILDING

A Seminar Report

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Submitted by

Rakesh Tamang

0214147

Department of Civil Engineering

College of Science and Technology

Rinchending :: Phuentsholing

October 22nd, 2018

i

ABSTRACT

Intelligent building emphasize on multi-disciplinary effort to integrate and optimize the
building structures, systems, services and management in order to create a productive, cost
effective and environmentally approved environment for the occupants. The concept of
Intelligent Building is still uncommon in Bhutan though substantial amount of literature on
intelligent building has been generated internationally. Therefore, this seminar report is
prepared for a comprehensive understanding on the development, applications and benefits of
Intelligent Building on human society. For this purpose, this report reviews the literature related
to the subject area of Intelligent Building. The report contains information to make a focused
understanding about the aims and objectives of Intelligent Building. The special sectors of
building, such as, security, safety, maintenance, control and comfort are explained precisely,
with clear figures and data where ever necessary. The intelligent building is also compared
with ordinary building for better understanding in this report. The energy efficiency and
economical aspects of intelligent building are also covered in the report

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Mr. Tshewang Nidup and Miss
Sangay Dema, Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, for providing their invaluable
guidance, comments and suggestions throughout the course of the seminar and to the
Department of Information and Technology for providing internet facilities.

Last but not least I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation, gratitude and love
to my friends and my beloved parents for their direct and indirect supports, strength and help.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………………..iii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………. vi
1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Definition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 History………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.3 Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
2. Building Automation System ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
3. Intelligent Building Systems …………………………………………………………………………………… 3
3.1 Controllers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
3.2 Occupancy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
3.3 Lighting …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
3.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and Indoor Air Quality ………………………….. 4
3.5 Elevators and Escalators ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
3.6 Distributed Building Control ……………………………………………………………………………….. 5
3.7 Intelligent Controllers …………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
4. MAJOR ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING ……………………………………………… 6
4.1 Security …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
4.1.1 Access control ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
4.1.2 Finger Print Lock …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
4.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom …………………………………………………………………………….. 8
4.1.4 Code Based Access System……………………………………………………………………………. 8
4.1.5 Swipe Card Access System ……………………………………………………………………………. 9
4.1.6 Biometric Access System ………………………………………………………………………………. 9
4.2 Life Safety and Surveillance ………………………………………………………………………………… 9
4.2.1 Surveillance ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
4.2.2 Safety ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
4.3 Tele Communication …………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
4.3.1 Cabling ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
4.3.2 Consolidated Communications …………………………………………………………………….. 13
5. Management Systems …………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

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5.1 Energy Management: ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
5.1.1 Electrical Demand Control …………………………………………………………………………… 14
5.1.2 Program Scheduling ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14
6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Intelligent Building…………………………………………… 14
7. Environmental Benefits of Intelligent Building ……………………………………………………… 15
8. Economy Consideration ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
9. Wireless Technology in Intelligent Building ………………………………………………………….. 16
10. Difference between Ordinary Building and Intelligent Building …………………………… 16
11. Intelligent Building in India………………………………………………………………………………… 17
12. Future Directions of Intelligent Building …………………………………………………………….. 18
13. Challenges Facing Intelligent Building Technologies……………………………………………. 19
14. Lifespan of Intelligent Building …………………………………………………………………………… 19
15. Importance of Responsibilities ……………………………………………………………………………. 20
16. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Finger Print Lock. …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
Figure 2: Voice and Video Intercom. …………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Figure 3: Code based Access System. ……………………………………………………………………………. 8
Figure 4: Swipe Card Access System …………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Figure 5: Biometric Access System. ………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Figure 6: Surveillance. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Figure 7: Safety. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Figure 8: Telecommunication System. …………………………………………………………………………. 12
Figure 9: Intelligent Building in India. …………………………………………………………………………. 17
Figure 10: NIIT Building in India. ………………………………………………………………………………. 18

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Sl. No. Terms Descriptions
1 IB Intelligent Building
2 LAN Local Area Network
3 BAS Building Automation System
4 HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
5 UPS Unlimited Power Supply
6 CAD Computer Aided Design
7 IBMS Intelligent Building Management System
8 PWAC Present Worth of Annual Charge
9 NPV Net Present Value

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definition

An intelligent building is one that integrates technology and process to create a facility that is
safer, more comfortable and productive for its occupants, and more operationally efficient for
its owners. Advanced technology—combined with improved processes for design, construction
and operations—provide a superior indoor environment that improves occupant comfort and
productivity while reducing energy consumption and operations staffing.

An Intelligent Buildings are designed and constructed on an appropriate selection of quality
environment modules to meet the user’s requirements by mapping to the appropriate building
facilities to achieve a long-termed building value and equipped with robust telecommunication
infrastructure, allowing for more efficient use of resources and increasing the comfort and
security of its occupants.

1.2 History

The Intelligent Building concept arose as a direct response of the relationship between
developing technologies and buildings in the early 1980’s and generally advocated extensive
use of elaborate centralized electronic systems to facilitate control of building support and
communication systems for voice and data. The newest evolutionary models pair building
automation systems with sophisticated telecommunications and data processing capabilities,
translated into a new angle on a building’s marketability and organization’s efficiency. Builders
and owners were pressured to develop intelligent buildings, in spite of high premium costs, at
that time, for prestige reasons and for enhanced rental potential. The Building Automation
System and the Communication System industry as well as other specialized interest group
soon developed specific products and applications to meet and facilitate the implementation of
Intelligent Building Concept. The high technology concept of intelligent building systems was
introduced in United States. The Intelligent Building concept is now well developed and applied
in Europe, Asia and North America.

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1.3 Overview

The successful integration of various technology and management systems will produce three
dimensions of building intelligence.
Most intelligent-building systems are characterized by:

1. standardized building wiring system that permit full building control over a single
infrastructure.
2. higher building value and leasing potential via increased individual environmental
control.
3. consumption costs that are managed through zone control on a time of day schedule.
4. tenant control over building systems via computer or telephone interface.
5. comprehensive tracking of tenant after hour use for chargeback purposes.
6. a single human resources interface that modifies telephone, security, parking, local area
network, wireless devices, building directories, etc.

Three Dimensions of Intelligent Building:

1. Building Automation System
Building Automation System enables the building to respond to external factors and
conditions (like climate variations, fire etc.), simultaneous sensing, control and
monitoring of the internal environment and the storage of the data generated.

2. Office Automation System and Local Area Network
It provides management information and decision support aids with link to the central
computer system.

3. Advanced Telecommunication
It enables rapid communication with outside world, via the central computer system
using optical fiber installations, microwave and conventional satellite links.

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2. Building Automation System

A Building Automation System is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that
controls and monitors the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation,
lighting, power systems, fire systems and security systems.
The BAS functionality reduces building energy and maintenance costs when compared to a
non-controlled building. A building controlled by a BAS is often referred to as an intelligent
building system.

Most building automation networks consists of a primary and secondary bus which connect
high-level controllers with low lower-level controllers, input/output devices and the user
interface (also known as a human I interface device).

Most controller are proprietary. Each company has its own controllers for the specific
applications. Some are designed with limited controls: for example, a simple Packaged Roof
Top Unit. Others are designed to be flexible. Inputs and outputs are either analog or digital. A
digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not. Some examples of a digital input would
be a 24VDC/AC signal, an air flow switch, or a volt-free relay contact. Digital outputs are used
to open and close relays and switches. An example would be to turn on the parking lot lights
when a photocell indicates it is dark outside 1.

3. Intelligent Building Systems

3.1 Controllers

Controllers are essentially small, purpose-built computers with input and output capabilities.
These controllers come in range of sizes and capabilities to control devices commonly found in
buildings, and to control sub-networks of controllers. Inputs allow a controller to read
temperatures, humidity, pressure, current flow, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs
allow the computers to send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts
of the system. Inputs and outputs can be either digital or analog.

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3.2 Occupancy

Occupancy is one of two or more operating modes for a building automation system and
it is usually based on time of day schedules. In occupancy mode, the BAS aims to provide a
comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often with zone-based control so that users on one
of a building have a different thermostat than users on the opposite side. Some buildings rely
on occupancy sensors to activate lighting and/or climate conditioning. Given the potential for
long lead times before a space becomes sufficiently cool or warm, climate conditioning is not
often initiated directly by an occupancy sensors.

3.3 Lighting

Lighting can be turned on and off with BAS based on time of day, or on occupancy sensors,
photo sensors and timers. One typical example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half hour
since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense darkness, and
the time of day, and modulate lights in outer offices and the parking lot.

3.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and Indoor Air Quality

HVAC systems are generally controlled by building automation systems that can:

?? permit individual occupants to adjust workspace temperatures (within prescribed limits)?
?? adjust indoor air quality based on room occupancy and building standards;?
?? adjust humidity, temperature and air flow speeds; and?
?? use either variable air volume or constant volume air distribution designs.?
?? monitor temperatures, and adjust according to a usage profile.?

3.5 Elevators and Escalators

Intelligent building systems can provide occupants with improved elevator service. Elevator
control can be quite complex, particularly with multiple elevator groupings and incorporating
traffic patterns into the system. Some elevators may be shut down for part of the day to conserve
energy. Current designs frequently include communications within the elevators to permit the
use of access control cards, and closed circuit surveillance is becoming widespread. An

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effective access control system can permit dynamic changes to user privileges so that, for
example, certain floors may not be accessible even with an approved access control card, unless
there are already people occupying that floor. Escalators can save energy by slowing down or
stopping when detectors indicate no traffic. This approach to energy savings also benefits the
mechanical components that need not run continuously.

3.6 Distributed Building Control

Distributed controllers can provide total building automation. These devices, which communicate
using a dedicated network, allow the use of standard access control, intrusion monitoring and
surveillance devices, and can include multiple switched inputs and outputs, analog and digital input
and output controls. The communications network can interact seamlessly with associated video
and audio switches, allowing the operator screens to be used to select and control many different
device types. The primary benefit of a distributed control system is the ability of individual
controllers to continue functioning when some elements of the network or main computer fail.
These controllers often interact with audio and videos switches and other building management
systems.

3.7 Intelligent Controllers

As processors and memory are built into the controllers activating HVAC and other building
systems, there are opportunities to provide closed loop control. In traditional controllers, no
response confirms that the requested action has occurred, e.g., if the room needs heat and warm
air is called for, it is assumed that the baffle has acted as required, which is not always true.
Intelligent controllers would confirm the success or failure of the baffle movement, closing the
information loop. The intelligent controller can perform self-diagnostics and report potential
failures sometimes before they occur, e.g., the controller can report that the actuator needed to
move multiple times before the baffle achieved the desired position, indicating a mechanical
malfunction. These controllers also function in a degraded manner if the communications link
fails. Intelligent controllers may be applicable to any of the systems contained in, and controlled
by, an intelligent building system and can report status information to the central control system.
The same approach also allows periodic diagnostic cycles in order to perform directed
maintenance.

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4. MAJOR ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING

4.1 Security

The security system includes controlling access, surveillance and communication.

4.1.1 Access control

Access control restricts how and when people enter and/or exit an area. Your particular needs
will determine how that is accomplished. Access Control Systems allow people or vehicles into
a restricted area via identification through coded keys, magnetic cards, or biometric readers
such as hand, face, voice, finger or retina readers. These systems are used in many businesses,
hotels and apartment complexes.

4.1.1.1 Common Features of Access Control

1. Limit access
Systems can be programmed to allow certain users to enter specific areas only at certain
times. Other users can be allowed to enter all locations at all times.

2. Automating
Systems can automatically lock a door or gate each evening at a certain time and unlock
it automatically at another time.

Security
Telecommunication
system
Energy
Management Comfort
Safety

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4.1.1.2 Working of an Access Control

1. First a barrier is needed to prevent someone from entering or exiting, such as a locked
door or gate.
2. Next a way is needed to determine who is trying to enter.
3. A credential reader is used to read the information on a key or card, to register a
combination of numbers entered on a pad or to identify some characteristics that the
user has, such as a fingerprint the shape of a hand, a pattern in the eye, etc.
4. This identifier is sent to a controller that has stored a record of those identifiers that are
authorized to enter the area.
5. If the credential holder is authorized the controller unlocks the gate or door and the
credential holder is allowed to enter.
6. In many systems a record of all authorized and unauthorized credentials is stored in the
system for future reference.

4.1.2 Finger Print Lock

Finger Print Lock is easy and simple to install. It is unlocked by fingerprint or code. It can store
up to one hundred fifty finger prints.

Figure 1.Finger Print lock

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4.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom

This type of access control is most commonly used in blocks of flats or apartments, where
access to the front door needs to be controlled remotely. Communication between the internal
phone and the outside speaker is established, before authorization to enter is granted.

Figure 2. Voice and Video Intercom

4.1.4 Code Based Access System

A secure pin code entered onto a touch screen is required, before Access to a controlled area is
allowed.
Figure 3. Code Based Access System

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4.1.5 Swipe Card Access System

Swipe Card Access System allows entrance to a secured area, through the “swiping” of a pre-
programmed card with magnetic strip through a reader.
Figure 4. Swipe Card Access System

4.1.6 Biometric Access System

The newest technology in access control, biometric systems verify a person’s identity, by unique
physical characteristics, such as a fingerprint or retina.
Figure 5. Biometric Access System

4.2 Life Safety and Surveillance

Intelligence with respect to life safety in an intelligent building consists of the use of high
technology to maximize the performance of fire alarm and security systems while at the same
time minimizing costs. Life safety factors involved in intelligent buildings include:
1. Reduced manpower dependence
2. Closed-circuit television

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3. Card access control
4. Smoke detection
5. Intrusion alarms
6. Emergency control of elevators, doors and
7. Uninterruptible power supplies.

Many BAS have alarm capabilities. If an alarm is detected, it can be programmed to notify
someone. Notification can be through a compute, pager, cellular phone, or audible alarm.

Security systems can be interlocked to a building automation system. If occupancy sensors are
present, they can also be used as burglar alarms. Fire and smoke alarm systems can be hard-wired
to override building automation. For example: if the smoke alarm is activated, all the outside air
dampers close to prevent air coming into building, and an exhaust system can isolate the alarmed
area and activate and activate the exhaust fan to move smoke out of area. Life safety applications
are normally hard-wired to a mechanical device to override building automation control.

4.2.1 Surveillance

Surveillance helps in monitoring movement within and outside a building and its periphery
through camera (Closed-Circuit Television Camera) or perimeter devices like intrusion alarms.
Also helps in alerting the security manager, in case of violation of pre-set norms.
Figure 6. Surveillance

4.2.2 Safety

Life safety systems, often called “fire systems”, are typically driven by code considerations.
Security systems are required to release doors per code constraints under emergency conditions.

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HVAC systems are also driven by life safety needs, e.g., smoke extraction, stairwell
pressurization and elevator recall.

This system deals with the Fire Alarm System, the Emergency Lighting, the Egress Lighting
System and the Smoke Evacuation System.

Fire protection system pumps water to the areas where the fire occurs, so as to douse it
automatically through sprinkler bulbs and also manually through the fire brigade. Sufficient
water pressure should be maintained throughout.

Early warning systems like smoke detection systems, detects the fire at a very early stage and
pinpoint to the caretaker where exactly it is occurring, so that the fire is extinguished locally
through manual fire extinguishers.
Figure 7. Safety

4.3 Tele Communication

Intelligence with respect to telecommunications in an intelligent building consists of the
offering to tenants of many sophisticated telecom features at a considerably reduced cost due
to the fact that the equipment is shared by many users. Some of the telecom features involved
in intelligent buildings are:
1. private telephone exchange systems
2. cablevision
3. audio-visual and video-conferencing
4. satellite communications and
5. electronic mail, Intranets and Internet access

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Telecommunication Systems and Office Automation Systems like the UPS and the Public
Address system provides the required support in the event of security violation or fire.
Figure 8. Telecommunication Systems

4.3.1 Cabling

Separate cabling within a building is typically provided for each system requiring communications
interaction, i.e., separate cables are provided for telephones, local area networks, building
automation, fire systems and elevator controls, depending on the systems in the structure. The
cabling required for intelligent building technologies applications should, to the extent possible,
adhere to a number of basic criteria for integration. In the future, individual cables will not be
needed because the communications systems will be integrated. Most integrated cable systems
will:
1. multiplex or otherwise consolidate the communication needs between different systems;
2. use a single, common communications raceway or communications tray;
3. locate all common equipment in shared communications rooms where the equipment
can readily be interconnected as required;
4. ensure that the communications rooms are secure;
5. use the same type of cabling wherever possible, so applications and cables are
interchangeable over the lifetime of the building;
6. use the same kind of termination equipment for all cables;
7. manage the cable infrastructure as a building resource; and
8. follow a structured cabling design, as recommended by Telecommunications.

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4.3.2 Consolidated Communications

The concept of consolidated communications addresses the provision of a single communications
backbone throughout a building that uses intelligent building technologies. With a single backbone,
all communications requirements for the needs of the users and of the building can be co-located.
The resulting single communications path will be smaller and much less costly than the aggregate
of individual paths that would otherwise be needed, and ensures that spare capacity can be
consolidated between all applications. This single, consolidated communications infrastructure will
also use a limited number of different cable types. The need for specialized wiring types is
applicable only to special applications. If all systems use the same wiring, spare capacity can be
shared among all systems. In some cases, several signals will be consolidated on a single cable. In
other situations, individual cables of the same type will each carry a single signal. Multiplex allows
multiple signals to travel on a single communications link. This approach is far more cost and
service effective when most data are digital packets on a single network. Whether the backbone is
a single cable or a group of cables will vary from project to project. A key aspect is the association
with the communications rooms. These strategically located rooms must have sufficient space and
services to securely accommodate communications equipment. This equipment will then bridge
and link the distribution network feeding the end users and the consolidated backbone
infrastructure of the building.

5. Management Systems

Energy-effective systems balance a building’s electric light, daylight and mechanical systems
for maximum benefit. Adding daylight to a building is one way to achieve an energy effective
design. And with the reduced need for electric light, a great deal of money can be saved on
energy.

A number of facility management programs are available. They vary in complexity as well as
in their ability to integrate complex systems such as:

1. CAD drawing records of floor and office layouts
2. Furniture inventory
3. Maintenance management program
4. Preventive maintenance of building structures
5. Real time data acquisition on equipment run time

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6. Dynamic energy consumption total per tenant
7. Historical data storage
8. Cost control and budgeting capabilities
9. Analytical programs

5.1 Energy Management:

Energy management forms an integral part of the Intelligent Building and should be built to
allow Real Time and dynamic interaction with the energy consuming elements of the building.

5.1.1 Electrical Demand Control

No energy management program can be effective unless critical energy consuming areas are
monitored individually and allow the energy management program the required intervention
capabilities such as turning equipment on/off or limiting its capacity where possible through
electrical load shedding or load stabilization routines.

5.1.2 Program Scheduling

The ability to schedule operation of any significant energy consuming equipment on the basis
of season, occupancy load, time of day, statutory holidays, daytime natural light visibility, etc.
is possibly the most significant energy saving feature to incorporate in the building.

6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Intelligent Building

The Intelligent Building has following advantages;

1. Higher level of security and safety
2. Simplified operation for users and administrators
3. Simpler staff tracking
4. Reduced administration costs
5. Smartcards-single card for security and cash transactions
6. Reduced system costs by sharing infrastructure
7. Easier integration into university systems
8. Information can be delivered to all the interested parties in the manner they need
9. Increased mobility-not tied to a specialist workstation

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10. Training is minimized, use standard operating environments

The Intelligent Building has following disadvantages;

1. Increased complexity of system
2. Very high initial cost
3. Normal building last longer than intelligent building

7. Environmental Benefits of Intelligent Building

An intelligent building starts with an environmentally friendly design. It creates a project that
is environmentally friendly and energy efficient ties in closely with many of the intelligent
attributes. Intelligent buildings are designed for long-term sustainability and minimal
environmental impact through the selection of recycled and recyclable materials, construction,
maintenance and operations procedures. Providing the ability to integrate building controls,
optimize operations, and enterprise level management results in a significant enhancement in
energy efficiency, lowering both cost and energy usage compared to non-intelligent projects.

8. Economy Consideration

Creating an intelligent building does require an investment in advanced technology, processes,
and solutions. An upfront investment is required to realize a significant return later on. It is
unrealistic to expect to make a project intelligent unless there is early buy in on investment.
One of the challenges is to educate owners on the benefits of an intelligent building design.
This makes the education of both owners and architects about the benefits of intelligent
solutions critical for success.

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9. Wireless Technology in Intelligent Building

Wireless technology can simplify a variety of tasks and cut personnel costs. Sensors can activate
lawn sprinklers when the soil is too dry. In bathrooms, paper towel holders and soap dispensers
can be connected wirelessly to the building’s network. When soap runs out, an e-mail can
automatically alert the maintenance department. Also it eases the movements of the staff in the
building, instead of going to certain floors to activate a device, they can do it wirelessly using
an intelligent tool such as remote controls. Many wireless devices and protocols are currently
being promoted. Burglar alarm systems for residential applications, patient wandering systems
for hospitals and other applications of voice systems, such as Bluetooth communicate without
a hard wired infrastructure. Wireless communications are particularly attractive where offices
and partitions are frequently reconfigured, and applications change frequently. The wireless
solution competes favorably with wired alternatives. HVAC requirements can be economically
and efficiently met using wireless controls.
10. Difference between Ordinary Building and Intelligent Building

Intelligent building adjusts the inside functional aspects such as lighting, ventilation, air
conditioning, etc. automatically with the changes in environmental conditions controlled by
computer. In ordinary building there will be different room conditions depending on the
changes in the environmental conditions.

While planning an intelligent building, a Building service engineer, an Architect & Hardware
Engineer is required, but in case of ordinary building, a Building service engineer and an
Architect is enough.

In an Intelligent Building, the security system, communication system, etc. are coordinated and
automatically controlled by computer work station.

The cost of construction of Intelligent Building is very high as compared to an ordinary
building. The development cost of an Intelligent Building is 8 – 10% higher than that of an
ordinary building. But this can be justified by the resulting energy saving, which is only 25 –
35% of energy required by normal building.

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11. Intelligent Building in India

. Figure 9. Intelligent Building in India

The need for Intelligent Buildings rose with the emergence of the IT sector. IT firms need
uninterrupted working environment for 365 days a year. Some kind of round the clock
monitoring is also necessary.
Techno-campus of Cognizant Technology Solutions, Thoraipakkam on old Mamallapuram
road is one of the Intelligent Buildings in India. It took 14 months to evolve a fully integrated
design plan and arrive at the IBMS solution that covers security, safety and automation, and
since January 2004 the concept has been functional in the 400,000-sqft complex.
Some of the features of Intelligent Building Management System in Cognizant are:4

1. Smoke detection systems
2. Bio metric finger scanning systems
3. 73 CCTV cameras
4. Control of HVAC
5. Control of water levels in overhead tanks
6. Automatic lighting control

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Figure 10. NIIT Building in India

12. Future Directions of Intelligent Building

The most successful intelligent buildings indicate that the greatest advantages come from
integrating communications and ensuring that the traditional systems have the ability to
intercommunicate and interoperate. A single operator interface must recognize status and
control information of all available systems. The primary benefit comes from the shared space,
infrastructure and operating staff. Current trends to work from home encourage remote
interaction with building communications and services.

These trends are being influenced by technologies and the current market situation. Construction
methods and technologies are breaking down some conventional barriers. Increasing concern with
environmental impacts and with security needs are market forces that influence intelligent
buildings functionality. Intelligent buildings depend on the increasing reliability of secure and
resilient communication infrastructures. Mobile telephones are well established, encouraging
mobile communications in many other forms. This technology has value for in-building
applications. For the occupants/tenants and the operators, these technologies yield substantial
efficiencies. These evolving concepts will lead to intelligent building technologies that are not
yet on the drawing board.

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13. Challenges Facing Intelligent Building Technologies

Challenges to the widespread introduction of intelligent building technologies arise from many
diverse considerations. A significant consideration is always the financial impact, including
capital costs, expense costs and revenue. Good business practice requires that financial
implications must be correctly assessed, taking into consideration the time value of money and
the effect of taxation. Low initial costs are attractive to developers, while the owners/operators
and occupants/tenants are more interested in long term operational costs. Intelligent building
technologies offer significant opportunities to generate increased revenue. Intelligent buildings
offer more value, hence sell and/or rent for higher prices and/or more rapidly. Financial
decisions based on the comparison of alternative plans of action that consider only initial cost
will inevitably be wrong. If the revenue stream of the alternatives is the same, then revenue can
be ignored and the continuing expenses can be factored in using the metric present worth of
annual charges (PWAC). If the alternatives are expected to generate different amounts of
revenue, which will generally be the case when intelligent building technology applications are
under consideration, the correct metric is net present value (NPV). The initial cost must, of
course, be considered, but should only be the deciding factor when the correct metrics for the
comparison of alternatives, (PWAC where expected revenue is uniform and NPV where
expected revenue varies) are the same or very close.

14. Lifespan of Intelligent Building

The evolution of electronic technology is moving rapidly, with lifespans and life-cycle times in
the range of five to ten years. Buildings typically have a lifespan between major refits of
approximately 25 years, or two to three technology cycles 4. A significant advantage of
intelligent building technologies is the ability to upgrade the electronics while continuing to use
the cabling that is already in place. Equipment and system vendors have an opportunity to
design graceful growth into their product evolution plans; to enable their products that are in
service to be upgraded to add the most recently introduced features and functions. Building
automation depends on many systems and components. Existing solutions will continue to
function with the current implementation and capabilities, when newer products in the market
place have displaced the installed product.

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15. Importance of Responsibilities

The design process of Intelligent Building must allocate responsibilities to suitably qualified
engineers and contractors who are responsible for the design and implementation of the: 6
1. common infrastructure;??
2. infrastructure testing;??
3. infrastructure acceptance and commissioning;??
4. system selection;??
5. system interaction;??
6. system testing and commissioning;??
7. system verification; and??
8. documentation, servicing, maintenance and repair.?

In an intelligent building, these roles are now consolidated into a single series of
responsibilities. The challenge for the architect as the primary contract manager is to select
engineers and contractors qualified to undertake these activities. Since the involvement of more
parties in the construction process could make it more difficult to assign responsibilities, early
and clear resolution of disputes is important.

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16. Conclusion

The Intelligent Building system is the advancement of the building components of the future.
The goal of having an intelligent building only starts with early planning in the design stage. In
many ways, this mirrors the design and fulfillment of many green projects today, but it uses
technology to provide for a superior space. There are enormous benefits to be gained by creating
intelligent buildings.

With proper marketing such buildings will entice tenants to sign on with a much greater ease.
By supporting the tenants in as many services as possible the building owners also gain from
the profits realized from these services and tenants profit from the discounts to be had on their
end as well.

Reduced energy costs are seen as a major benefit of intelligent building technologies equated
to HVAC. However, other benefits, e.g., reduced staff levels and improved occupant
satisfaction, are often overlooked.

The degree of confidence in intelligent building technologies is inadequate largely because of
a lack of awareness and understanding of its value. There is a lack of properly assessable
intelligent building technology reference projects.

Intelligent building technologies are generally available, but not yet widely adopted and many
changes and initiatives are needed for use of these technologies to become widespread.

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REFERENCES

1. Heiselberg P, Christiansson P, Reinhold C (2007) Intelligent Buildings / Smart Homes.
Architectural Engineering and SBI, Aalborg University. January 2007. (6 pp.)

2. Rawlson, N.K., “What are Intelligent Building Technologies”, Electronic Design, 2006.

3. Amatya S., “Intelligent Building Research, A Review”, Automation in Construction 14″,
2005.

3. “Intelligent Building”, Document and Research for Small Business and Professionals
retrieved from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/135019986/Intelligent-Building—DOC

4. “Technology Roadmap for Intelligent Building”, Federal Interdepartmental Forum of
Construction, 2002.
5. Sharma D., “Intelligent Buildings”, retrieved from

6. “Homes and Buildings”, A Magazine of the Continental Automated Building Association
2006.

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