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Influence of Competencies Possessed by Project Managers on Project Success. By Amir Shafat Registration No. SP15-RPM-612 MS Thesis In Master of Science in Project Management COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Virtual Campus – Pakistan Fall, 2015 COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Influence of Competencies Possessed by Project Managers on Project Success. A Thesis Presented to COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad In partial fulfillment Of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Project Management By Amir Shafat Registration No. SP15-RPM-612 Fall, 2015 Influence of Competencies Possessed by Project Managers on Project Success. A Post Graduate Thesis submitted to the name of department Management Sciences as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of M.S-Project Management. NameRegistration NumberAmir ShafatReg No. SP15-RPM-612 Supervisor Dr. Imran Malik Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) November, 2015 FINAL APPROVAL This thesis titled Influence of Competencies Possessed by Project Managers on Project Success. By Amir Shafat Reg. No. SP15-RPM-612 Has been approved For the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Virtual Campus External Examiner Supervisor Dr. Imran Malik Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) HOD Dr. Shazia Bilal Head of Department of Management Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Virtual Campus. Islamabad DECLARATION I Amir Shafat and Registration No. SP15-RPM-612hereby declare that I have produced the work presented in this thesis, during the scheduled period of study. I also declare that I have not taken any material from any source except referred to wherever due that amount of plagiarism is within acceptable range. I hereby declare that this research is based entirely on the basis of personal efforts made under the sincere guidance of my supervisor. If a violation of HEC rules on research has occurred in this thesis, I shall be liable to punishable action under the plagiarism rules of the HEC. Date _________________ Signature of the student Date of Thesis Submission Amir Shafat Registration No. SP15-RPM-612 CERTIFICATE It is certified that Amir Shafat and Registration No. SP15-RPM-612has carried out all the work related to this thesis under my supervision at the Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Virtual Campus and the work fulfills the requirement for award of MS degree. Date _________________ Supervisor Dr. Imran Malik Professor Department of Management Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Attock Campus. Head of Department Dr. Shazia Bilal Head of Department of Management Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Virtual Campus.Islamabad DEDICATION I dedicating my work first of all to ALLAH and My Prophet of Mercy (P.B.U.H), a true reason of our life. This thesis work is dedicated to my wife, Sahar Aamir who has been a constant source of support and encouragement during the challenges of life, and who has been a great source of motivation and inspiration. This work is also dedicated to my family members and friends who have always loved me unconditionally, whose support have given me determination and fortitude to accomplish our goal and whose good examples have taught me to work hard for the things that I aspire to achieve. All they are assets of my life, Finally, this thesis is dedicated to all those who believe in the richness of learning. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Researcher bestow all praises to, Almighty ALLAH, The Most Merciful and The Most Beneficent, Whose countless blessings enabled us to complete my work. Thanks to Almighty Allah for giving us knowledge, power and strength to complete this project. Researcher have learned a lot during this project and this will certainly help us in our upcoming professional Career. Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my Supervisor Dr. Imran Malik for the continuous support of my MS study and research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my MS study. Besides my advisor, I would like to thank the rest of my thesis committee Dr. Arshad Basheer and Shazia Bilal, for their encouragement, insightful comments, and hard questions. My sincere thanks also goes to organization for offering me the opportunities in their virtual groups and leading me working on diverse exciting virtual projects to assistance in my research work. In the end Researcher would like to thank our teachers because without their guidance and affection during our studies, this project was not achievable. Amir Shafat SP15-RPM-612 ABSTRACT Influence of Competencies Possessed by Project Managers on Project Success. The organizations are constantly making efforts to get to the top in a race with their competitors. The organizations are adopting new systems to get the goals achieved and for this purpose the organizations have adopted the project structures. Moreover the organizations are continuously working on decreasing the deficiencies in their working processes and by attracting, maintaining and sustaining error free human resources. Doing this requires the exceptional caliber possessed by the project managers leading the project. The aim of the current study is to examine the impact of different competencies possessed by the project managers working for the construction project. Moreover the mediating role of affective commitment is examined in both the abovementioned relationships. The methodology used for this investigation includes the use of well structured questionnaire that was self-reported. The statements were presented unanimously in a single sequence to avoid any type of biases. The reliability and validity of the instrument used was ensured using statistical techniques. Further the regression analysis helped in determining the impact of the selected competencies on the success of the construction project. The results revealed supporting outcomes for the hypotheses developed. Ensuring project success is an important factor for the project managers because all their stakes are connected with it. The study helps to identify the crucial competencies possessed by the project managers that help them ensuring project success. Keywords Affective commitment, Project manager, competencies, construction project, HR management competencies, quality management competencies, Pakistan. TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc457296186 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296187 CHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc457296187 h 1 1.1. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296188 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc457296188 h 1 1.2. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296189 IDENTIFICATION OF THE GAP PAGEREF _Toc457296189 h 2 1.3. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296190 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IDENTIFIED PAGEREF _Toc457296190 h 3 1.4. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296191 RESEARCH QUESTION PAGEREF _Toc457296191 h 3 1.5. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296192 OBJECTIVES SET FOR THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc457296192 h 3 1.6. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296193 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc457296193 h 4 1.7. HYPERLINK l _Toc457296194 SEQUENCE OF THE THESIS PAGEREF _Toc457296194 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296195 CHAPTER 2 PAGEREF _Toc457296195 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296196 2.1. DEFINITION OF THE CONSTRUCTS PAGEREF _Toc457296196 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296201 2.2. THEORETICAL REFLECTIONS PAGEREF _Toc457296201 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296203 2.3. LITERATURE REFLECTIONS AND GAPS PAGEREF _Toc457296203 h 12 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296204 2.4. EVIDENCES FROM THE LITERATURE PAGEREF _Toc457296204 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296205 CHAPTER 3 PAGEREF _Toc457296205 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296206 3.1. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK PAGEREF _Toc457296206 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296207 3.2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK PAGEREF _Toc457296207 h 17 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296208 3.3. PROPOSED RESEARCH MODEL PAGEREF _Toc457296208 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296209 3.4. HYPOTHESES DEVELOPED PAGEREF _Toc457296209 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296210 CHAPTER 4 PAGEREF _Toc457296210 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296211 4.1. RESEARCH DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc457296211 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296212 4.2. POPULATION AND SAMPLING PAGEREF _Toc457296212 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296217 4.3. INSTRUMENT SELECTION PAGEREF _Toc457296217 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296220 4.4. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE PAGEREF _Toc457296220 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296221 4.5. LEVEL OF ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc457296221 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296222 4.6. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES USED PAGEREF _Toc457296222 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296227 4.7. SOFTWARES USED FOR DATA MANAGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc457296227 h 28 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296229 CHAPTER 5 PAGEREF _Toc457296229 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296230 5.1. DESCRIPTIVE INFORMATION OF THE RESPONDENTS PAGEREF _Toc457296230 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296231 5.2. RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION TEST PAGEREF _Toc457296231 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296234 CHAPTER 6 PAGEREF _Toc457296234 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296235 6.1. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS PAGEREF _Toc457296235 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296236 6.2. CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc457296236 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296237 6.3. SUGGESTIONS PAGEREF _Toc457296237 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296238 6.4. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS PAGEREF _Toc457296238 h 38 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296240 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc457296240 h 39 HYPERLINK l _Toc457296241 APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc457296241 h 43 LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c Figure HYPERLINK l _Toc457298154 Figure 1 Proposed hypothesized model. PAGEREF _Toc457298154 h 18 LIST OF TABLES TOC h z c Table HYPERLINK l _Toc457298019 Table 1 Reliabilities of the scales PAGEREF _Toc457298019 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc457298020 Table 2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis PAGEREF _Toc457298020 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc457298021 Table 3 Descriptive profile of respondents PAGEREF _Toc457298021 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc457298022 Table 4 Correlations PAGEREF _Toc457298022 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc457298023 Table 5 Regression analysis PAGEREF _Toc457298023 h 31 ABBREVIATIONS CM Communication Management CMC Communication Management Competencies HRMC Human Resource Management Competencies HR Human Resources PM Project management PS Project Success PQMC Project Quality Management Competencies QMC Quality Management Competencies SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of this Research Human resources for any organization/project play an important role in the commencement of its functions. The refined set of knowledge, skills and abilities possessed by the project manager and the project team members determine the fate of the organizations/projects (Thi, Swierczek, 2007). The organizations at the same time have started looking for the people that really can become a part of its functioning in such a manner that the organization can develop competitive edge over others. To meet this target the organizations have started thinking to commence project based operation (Belout Gauvreau, 2004). Looking at the Project Management Body of Knowledge commonly known as PMBOK is of the view that human resources are one of the core aspects of any project that can help run projects effectively and can provide strengths over competing companies (PMI, 2004). Despite the importance highlighted by the PMBOK, few researchers have come up with contradictory remarks such as Pinto and Prescott (1988) noted that Human Resources are as important to ensure project success in any of the project life cycle stages rather the technical aspects are more important than human resources. In the same connection other group of researchers Belout and Gauvreau (2004) have reported that human resources are not really important as compared to the other factors ensuring project success. But in the same run of identifying the factors that have positive impact on the project success Arendse (2013) recognized that the competencies possessed by the humans are the determining effective project management. Society for human resource management recognized the importance of human resources in the projects in terms of goals achieving factors for organizations and projects (SHRM, 2012). Most recently the researchers have emphasized development of all types of competencies that are necessary for the smooth commencement of the project and helps in results positive outcomes, including the hard skills and the soft skills (Campion, Fink, Ruggeberg, Carr, Phillips, Odman, 2011). These contradictory remarks by the earlier researchers have raised a demand for further examinations. 1.2. The Research Gaps The leadership theories especially the trait leadership theory shed light on the specific qualities possessed by the leaders that help them to become a leader. The leaders are the successful people that have the quality of influencing the followers for accomplishment of goals of the organizations and projects. The same is the case with the construction industry (Khan, 2008). No one shoe fits all is the main concern over here. The specific traits possessed by the project managers may result favorably towards the attainment of the organizational/project goals. But change in the nature of the project may demand for change and use of different competencies. Project failures are constantly increasing regardless of the fact that the standards and guidelines are available for the managers and their team members (Smith, Bruyns, Evans, 2011) This may be due to that no appropriate sector wise identification of project managers competencies are reported yet. Further the contradictory findings of the earlier scholars with few have opinion of HR and quality related competencies being a positive factor and few having no or negative impacts calls for further investigation of the factors impacting project success especially in the construction industry (Khan, Long, Iqbal, 2014). It is to clarify the focus of the study and the study focuses on the project commitment of the project managers having its role in implementing the procedures and policies in such a manner that ensures project success. The role of project commitment is examined as a mediator because of the reason that only having/possessing the competencies of the project managers for managing HR and quality management does not ensure the project so far as the project managers are not committed to do their job whole heartedly. The role of commitment come where there is demand in the loyalty to the projects and where there is sincerity needed for the accomplishment of the project goals. only possessing the competencies may not work but using them with sincerity and truthfulness is required. Further it is noted that earlier research studies are conducted in the different contexts with respect to geographic distributions and sectors considered for the examination but at the same time the same set of independent and dependent variables are not considered for the study. Thus the problem statement is provided for the current investigation (Al-Khawaldah, 2017). Intense need has been identified by the researchers working in the same field of study for highlighting the factors that have impact on the project success for the projects being commenced in Pakistan (Ahmad, Younas, Ahmad and Anwar, 2015).They have identified critical success factors in Pakistan by using questionnaire and found that planning and control is the most important factor of all for project success. Planning and control is totally dependent upon the project manager who is handling the project that is why they have emphasized examining the project managers aspect for project success. Further eelier research study conducted by Baker et al. (1983) reported that the researchers should not only focus on examining the role of time cost and quality on the projects rather other aspects should also be considered for examination. It is necessary to manage human resources, and the communication channels used by the project managers because these can be the possible reasons for project success or failure (Skulmoski Hartman, 2010). Further the understanding of the humans working in the project give and edge to the project managers to develop a team of trust worthy employees that work upon a single signal from the project manager and can perform up to the mark as per the requirements (Smith, Bruyns Evans, 2011), without making mistakes and generating re-work situations. While considering the country context Pakistan seems as an ignored geography in terms of such investigations. Bakhsheshi and Nejad (2011) conducted investigation in Iranian context. Ofori (2014) examined the project success related linkages in Ghana. Furhter, Marambe, Chaminda and Jayasundara (2014) initiated study related to Sri Lankan project companies. Dong, Chuah Zhai (2004) considered similar examination in China. An array of studies reviewed shown their concern to examine the project related affairs in Pakistan (Ahmad, Younis, Ahmad, 2013). The problem statement developed in the light of highlighted importance of factors effecting project success is presented below Problem Statement The managers are making their efforts to avoid the failures of the projects in the construction and other project arenas. It is necessary in this regard to provide the project managers with the research based findings that help them to know the factor sthat can help them to achieve project success. The current study examines the impact of human resource management competencies and quality management competencies having impact on the success of the construction projects. Further the study examines the mediating role of commitment of the project managers towards project having influence on the direct linkages. Examining the impact of competencies of project managers on project success. Research Questions The following research questions are developed for the current investigation Research Question No. 1. Does human resource management competencies possessed by the project managers ensure attainment of the favorable results for the construction projects Research Question No. 2. Does quality management competencies possessed by the project managers ensure attainment of the favorable results for the construction projects Research Question No. 3. Does the commitment of the project managers towards the project mediate the linkage between HR competencies possessed by the project managers and the project success Research Question No. 4. Does the commitment of the project managers towards the project mediate the relationship of Quality management competencies possessed by the project managers and the project success in the construction project in Pakistan The Research Objectives To examine the effect of HR related competencies on the project success in Bahria Town in Pakistan. To ascertain the impact of quality related competencies on the project success in Bahria Town in Pakistan. To determine the mediating role of commitment of the project managers in the linkage between HR management competencies and project success To ascertain the mediating role of commitment of project manager in the relationship between quality management competencies and project success. Scope of the Study The research study is commenced by recording the responses from the construction project employees working in the construction project in Pakistan. The perceptions of employees regarding their project managers are recorded. The male and female employees working were considered for the study. The examination was made regarding the competencies possessed by the project managers that help attain project success, with a mediating role of commitment. Only one organization was considered in which various projects were running. The Bahria town, a well renowned organization that deals in real estates and construction projects was considered for the study for being most relevant for the results of the study. Bahira Town is privately owned real estate company having 160,000 employees in all as per year 2017s figures. It is supposed to be the largest real estate company in Asia. It is a project based company focusing on the construction projects and multiple construction projects are initiated on daily basis. It is renowned among public and is considered as one of the successful and reliable town in Pakistan. Significance of the Study The study stands important for the employees and the project managers in terms of knowing the factors that are the most contributing factors for ensuring project success. Further it is examined that whether the affective commitment of the project managers have any role to play in the linkages examined for this study. The role of project commitment can be seen as having importance in terms of the managers those project managers who do not have the commitment towards the project may bring unsuccessful results even they are utilizing their competencies, the commitment adds to the situation and help them get results with sincerity/loyalty. The people having commitment are more loyal and work with putting in more and more efforts and can prove to be the transformational leaders for the project team members. The study is important for the project management discipline because it is already noted that the factors ensuring success in the Chinese projects are different from the rest of the world Wang and Huang (2006) so it is most likely that the factors impacting construction projects in Pakistan may also being some different and interesting results. Sequence of thesis This research document is based on six chapters to fulfill the requirement of the university. The chapter wise overview is provided below Chapter one is comprised of the introduction of the study and the thesis. The background is developed for conducting this examination and the literature gaps are highlighted to be addressed. The problem statement is generated out of the logics gathered in the literature gap section. Later on the research questions are developed for finding out the answers to the study and objectives are developed to accomplish. The scope, significance and organization of the thesis also presented in the same chapter. The basic focus of the examination is to examine the impact of competencies of project manager leading to project success in the context of construction projects. The mediating role of commitment is also the area of focus in the same study. Chapter two is based on the compilation of the earlier research studies conducted in the relevant field. The examinations along with their findings are reported in the chapter of literature review. The definitions of the constructs are also presented for developing an understanding of the constructs. The critical view point with respect to the studies reported is also a part of the same chapter. Chapter three is about the theoretical/conceptual framework development. The supporting arguments for commencement of this study with the contradicting remarks are reported that helped to develop a framework for the current examination. The model is presented in a figure form and the hypotheses are reported at the end of the model developed. Chapter four is comprised of the methodology used for the study. The research design is reported as per the recommendations of the researchers in the earlier studies that have been conducted for quantitative examinations. The quantitative, cross-sectional and primary data is used as a major means of research methodology developed. Chapter five is about reporting the statistical techniques used for generating meaningful results. The percentages are reported for the demographic characteristics of the respondents and normality of data is examined. The validity of the measure is ensured and reported and the correlation analysis is done for examining the relationship of the variables. Further the co-linearity is examined via VIF and at the end the regression analysis is done to determine the impact of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The mediation is examined using SEM using SmartPLS software that works on the partial least square principle. In the last chapter that is chapter six, the discussion and ocnclusion are reported as per following the format of the research thesis format provided by the esteemed university. This chapter compress the results of the present study with the earlier findings reported in the literature review chapter and the conclusion are drawn. The suggestions for managers are also a part of the same chapter followed by the limitations and future direction sections. Lastly the references list is presented in the APA format and the questionnaire is presented as an annexure. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Definition and Importance of project and project success The understanding of the project success took birth in the late 1970s. Firstly the people only concentrated on looking project success only in terms of time, cost and quality (Belout Gauvreau, 2004). Later the quality was emphasized by giving it different meanings like in terms of revenues it achieved, the satisfaction it provided, the requirements it fulfilled, the standards it met etc. Regardless of the view point of the researchers all converged and equally emphasized the quantification/measurement of the project success. Thus various view points came into existence (Ahmad, Younis, Ahmad, Anwar, 2015). Alam, Gale, Brown, Khan (2010) noted that with the passage of time the two major perspectives emerged. The first focused on the golden triangle such as considering the time, cost and quality where as the other emphasized on the different those other stakeholders hold regarding project success (Collins Baccarini, 2004). Project success is also explained in terms of the perceptions of the customers such as the customers see that project as successful that fulfills their expectations and is capable of meeting their requirements. The project more closely to their expectations is regarded as the successful project (Ammeter, A. P., Dukerich, 2002). Steiners (1969) defined a project by stating that a project involves huge, bigger in scope, costly, different from others or high risk undertaking that has to be accomplished up to a specific date, to be completed by consuming a specific amount of money, and must follow some specific performance standards (p. 16). Since the boundaries of time and cost and standards are attached to the projects the members working together have to achieve the short term and long term goals for the project by accomplishing activities in time and within budget. If all is accomplished in time the project is termed as a successful project. The people are generally conscious about their performance so they try their best to perform better for better performance and thus the activities are accomplished in time and money. This given an organization an edge to get the things performed in time (Anantatmula, 2010). 2.2. Definition of Construction project success Williams (2016) reported that many researchers have defined project success but the correct definition for the construction project success is still missing. He has given a try to define the term construction project success. He also mentioned that for making the concept of success clear a full fledge conference was invited to get resolved the contradictions regarding success. At the end it was concluded that if the projects are meeting the performance standards. It is necessary to clearly define the project success especially in terms of construction project success. It becomes difficult for the company to get to the end unless it has clear definition of the term project success (Assaf, S., Hassanain, M.A., Mughal, 2014). So the managers have to keep end in mind while initiating the project. That is why it is said the well-begun is half done. Well begun can be ensured when the project success is clearly defined in terms of construction projects by the managers to provide clear direction to the employees. The construction project success can be seen in terms of the specifications provided by the client are met in a well defined manner within the cost and time limitations and ultimately it results in attaining the satisfaction of the client (Ika, 2009). 2.3. Definition of human resources management competencies The human resource management competencies or interpersonal competencies are important part of managing the projects. Human beings are considered assets for the organization and projects as they are the keys to perform operations (Baccarini, 1999 Bakhsheshi, Nejad, 2011). Brire, Proulx, Flores, Laporte (2015) reported that when it comes to be a project to be successful it has to be completed within parameters. For completing it within the parameters the project managers must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to get the things done by influencing the people and molding their behavior in such a manner that they should be capable of performing the activities assigned and obtain desired results. It is about having interpersonal competence to handle the human resources in favorable direction. So abilities possessed by the manager to get along with human resources are the key to manage and make the projects successful. This may includes the motivating employees, communicating employees in such a manner that they respond positively and get them aligned to the work activities to be performed (Ofori, 2014). Simply putting forward it is the ability of the project managers to lead, guide, provide assistance, and information in time to the project management team and any other stakeholder who is directly or indirectly affected by the commencement or outcomes of the project (PMI, 2008 Brire, Proulx, Flores, Laporte, 2015). 2.4. Definition of quality management competencies The maintenance of the quality standards can provide grantee for the successful completion. The quality standards when maintained, help in reducing the error rates and can help achieving the time targets. The safety aspect is placed more importance and the people and machines are dealt wisely. Assuring quality is one of the success criteria highlighted by the project Management Institute (PMI, 2008). Ensuring quality standards can grantee consistency in the products of products and services. 2.5. Definition of affective commitment Affective commitment is the level of loyalty that one holds towards the organization/project. it is the degree to which the project managers are loyal towards managing projects in terms of utilizing their human resources management companies and quality management competencies (Shore and Tetrick, 1991). The people who have greater affective commitment love to work for the organization/project and contribute to the maximum by utilizing the competencies they hold and vice versa (Ghafoor, Munir, Yousaf, Mohsin, 2016). Gaining commitment of employees and project managers is the secret of gaining success in the projects. This research explains the role of project commitment in ensuring success and tries to prove its value to the construction projects. The commitment is the factor that help managers to get into the collaborative mode as compared to the competitive mode so far as the internal project environment is concerned, thus being helpful in ensuring project success. Affective commitment can be seen as a truthful liking-ness towards the organization or a project. in earlier times the focus was made on the division of work that lasted an impact on having tighter control over the employees but in the competitive world this concept is not more valid, if the organizations have to progress and get the activities performed at a faster rate the organizations have to adopt policies that boost commitment (Cervone, 2014 Campbell, 2010). 2.6. Human resources management competencies and project success Various researchers have took interest to identify and put forward the factors that are responsible for ensuring project success such as the studies of Takey Carvalho (2015) Pasian Silvius (2016) and Al-Khawaldah (2017) can be seen in recent times. A project is perfumed in a sequence by accomplishing one activity after another activity. The activities assumed under any project are time specific and resource bound. The project is often a single time program to accomplish the st objectives. Here it becomes necessary to clarify that why the project is called as a single time activity because it has a specific date to begin and specific date to end (Harvey, 1999 Kerzner, 2003 Creasy, Anantatmula, 2013). While considering the critical success factors mentioned by the previous study conducted by Alias, Zawawi, Yusof and Aris (2014) highlighted combination of five success factors that help ensure completion of projects within resources available. The five factors identified are the actions of the project management team, the procedures used by them, the human resources involved, external issues that are influencing the project and direct problems that come across during commencement of the projects. They have recommended to further investigating the country specific factors that influence the project success (De Wit, 1988). It is also noted that while considering other factors for project success the project managers themselves and their characteristics are the important ones (Turner, 2008). Since the project managers experience consistent pressure from the employers to get the projects done in timely manner they there is chance that they may not be able to use their competencies in a comfortable manner (Takey Carvalho, 2015). Possessing and implementing human resource management competencies is important for the project managers because they are expected to coordinate work with people share the responsibilities and have to evaluate as per the responsibilities handed over to the project team members. This all need having communication capabilities use of correct words at the right time and as per the moods of the team members (Anantatmula, 2010). The management of human resources as per the changing environment within and outside the projects may call for the managers being effective for the accomplishment of the project related activates (El-Sabaa, 2001). The project context relevant skills are necessarily be possessed by the project managers. they must know how to acquire the construction project related people, how to motivate them, how to direct them and how to evaluate their performance (Sumner and Powell, 2013). When it comes to being project specific it means that no one shoe fits all is the rule of the thumb. Within the same project contexts even the handling of project team members differ from project to project. Mostly managing the human resources include the use of soft skills possessed by the managers instead of the project related hard skills. As Alam et al (2010) explained about competencies that these are the set of relevant knowledge, skills, traits possessed by the managers, motive, attitudes and value of the project managers towards its project. Muller and Turner (2007) highlighted that the project managers play an important role in obtaining success for their projects. But at the same time they have reported that different projects require different approaches to manage the project. This is because of the reason that different compositions can be seen in the project teams on the basis of individuals. So at times it becomes the hardest part of the project management to management and motivates the human resources within any project. In similar connection to address to various aspects of the project management the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, 2008) has highlighted various aspects of the management of projects including the human resources. Humans are generally considered as the assets for any project and if they are managed well, dealt in a respectful manner by giving them due value and right weight-age they tend to be the most precious components of the organizations/projects. Few researchers like Chan and Huang (2006) investigated the reasons ensuring success in the context of Chinese construction firms and found that not only the factors like time, cost and quality are important only but also the development of the relationships between the manager and the stakeholders especially the team members and clients are crucial too to get the project completed as per specifications and available resources. Another study done related to the IT projects revealed that the scope of the project and its operations that is the commencement of the activities is of more importance than any other aspect (Agarwal Rathod, 2006). But it is to keep in mind that the operations are generally commenced by the humans involved in the projects and they are the ones to ensure timely completion of activates. So besides the fact that the scope is important and the operations are important the team members have their place in the projects (Dong, C., Chuah, K.B., Zhai, 2004). Factors that make one project different from other project include the leadership style adopted by the project manager, team building and cohesion, policy making decisions and development of the strategy about how to do work in projects, management of stakeholders, resources including the human, and the contracting with different suppliers and firms (Westerveld, 2003). In another research effort the authors Assaf, Hassanain, and Mughal (2014) reported that effective teamwork is the most important aspects of the successful construction accomplishment. The relationship between the project team members and the project manager possess high weight-age in terms of their relationships that effect their communication and other interpersonal (trust, meeting and greeting etc.) relationships used for the accomplishment of the projects. The effective team management of the architectures, contractors for maps etc, suppliers of the materials, building specialists and others such as the governments representatives and technical engineers is a mandatory part of healthy interpersonal relationships (Winch, 2009). The effective human resource management techniques used by the project managers may include the motivation of employees. The managers must possess the skills to motivate the project team members working at various levels/phases of the project to syncronise the activities to be performed and finalizing the projects (Juli, 2010). If the construction project manager possess and practice the effective people management competencies the project manager can enjoy the benefits including cooperation from the project team members, openness in sharing of thoughts that may become a source of opportunity or upcoming threat, the project manager can enjoy the degree of trust developed, he can maintain the smooth flow of information both top to down and down to top, and can expect ethical behavior from the team members (Gido Clements, 2011). 2.7. Quality management competencies and project success People see project managers as core source of project success (Prabhakar, 2008). And it is also noted that management of people and quality of their working is to be maintained for better outcomes besides the technical aspects of the project operations (Scott-Young Samson, 2004). Quality management is the strength of the project managers to maintain and sustain the standards used in the construction projects. This helps them to satisfy the needs of the customers and to enjoy the good reputation after delivery of the construction, reported by Bakhsheshi Nejad (2011). The concept of quality can be seen from two major perspectives such as the provider perspective and the receiver perspective. The provider perspective is attached to looking at the things from the standards that are set earlier, where as the receiver perspective covers the utility aspect and the satisfaction of needs from that (Dvir, Raz, Shenhar, 2003). If the quality is managed in real sense by using the technology available the results are generally positive and people develop trust in the operations of the project managers and they further tend to come and consult the same project managers for further assignments and vice versa (Feger, Thomas, 2016). The quality in the projects can be ensured by coordinating the diverse components of the project including the quality project planning, commencement and change controls to gain an adequate balance of the time, cost and standards that are to be achieved. The consensus of the researchers is upon quality project management while describing the concept in terms of the product satisfying the needs of the client (Freeman, Beale, 1992 Garson, 2016). It stands one of the core competency of the project manager because when the managers ensure quality in planning, coordinating, and allocation of resources in time they develop a tendency to get the things performed in time and manage to achieve short term and long term goals. This also helps them to reduce the errors arising out of the quality ignorant work. Early liaison with the right people at the right time also ensures getting the tasks done in time and thus ensuring quality commencement of the project. Accepting the feedback from the team members for early solution of the potential problems also help to maintain consistencies in the activities to be performed (Gido, Clements, 2011). 2.8. Affective commitment and project success The researchers have noted that the people who are having affective commitment work whole heartedly for the organizations/projects and this effort make them effective project managers and they get the goals achieved, thus resulting in project success (Ika, Diallo, Thuillier, 2011). Jugdev, and Mller (2005) reported that when the project team members see committed project managers as their role model they also tend to perform well in the projects thus accomplishing the targets set. Several research studies have highlighted the importance of organizational/project commitment having impact on the performance of employees working there. The economy of every country is undergoing changes on regular basis and to respond to those changes the organizations need such skillful people that are capable enough and have the willingness to make efforts for achievement of the project goals. Globalization and increase in the competition needs the attention of the managers to develop such systems that call for immediately responding to the situations arising in the economy. The commitment of project managers and employees working under the control of project managers need commitment for better motivation and to show loyalty for the attainment for the performance standards that are further set to achieve the project success (Juli, 2010). Commitment leads to boost motivation of employees and managers and thus turns into a driving force for better performance outcomes. The organizations that focus on the strategies boosting organizational commitment are likely to see enhancement in the levels of discretionary efforts contributed towards the organization. The findings of one of the research studies show that when the employees move from being not committed to being committed they result in enhancing fifty seven percent better performance as compared to the people who are least bothered about their commitment towards the organizations and projects (Employee Engagement Survey, 2004). The facts reported above are supporters to the importance of managers and employees commitment towards their workplaces. This also motivates the managers to shift their point of view form control to commitment by empowering their workforce and inculcating trust in them. When the project team members feel a trust worthy and curing environment in terms of their manager taking care of them, having trust in them, delegating them with the assignments and powers they fell comfortable and develop a tendency to get engaged in performing their duties. The change management practices adopted by the organizations are supported with the commitment strategies of the organization. It is also noted that the end of the psychological contract between the job providers and the job holders crated a vacuum in the lives of the people working in the organizations that has to be addressed and filled. The existence of the commitment is necessary for the managers and employees to get to the results. The commitment of managers requires them to become responsible for the decisions and action they have taken. Looking at the commitment from the organizational perspective it can be seen in three different ways such as the affective commitment, the normative commitment and the continuance commitment. The affective commit is the degree to which the project managers love their projects and want to see the project successful (Meyer Allen, 1997). Affective commitment is the employees desire to remain and work in the same organization, normative commitment comes into play when the employees feel that they have some sort of obligation towards the organization and they have to return it back in a best possible manner that they see is effective. On the other side the last type of commitment that is continuance commitment is the one that arises when the employees have no other option except for serving the same organization/project. The current study only considered the affective commitment as it is seen as a purest form of the commitment that one can show (Khan, 2008). 2.9. Affective commitment as a mediator Affective commitment is the loyalty to the organization/project. Affective commitment arises when the employees start loving their organizations. They tend to becomes sincere and work with more efforts and hard work so there are chances of bringing uerest efforts to the workplace that is why affective commitment is considered as compared to the other two aspects that are continuance and normative commitments. Commitment is something that transforms promise done by an employee or a manager into reality of work to perform. It has a great power in it. The people who are committed to their work, practices and people tend to perform better as compared to those who lack this feature. When a person is committed to the organization or project he either performs or possess less tendency for not performing a great deal. There no way are in-between and when the people perform for their organizations the goals achieved and the organizations and projects are called as successful (Khan, Long, Iqbal, 2014). Being committed is to be loyal to your projects in terms of what you have said to perform. When an individual start loving its organization and start considering the organization as its own organization he wroks whole heartedly and thus his performance goes up. The performance becomes an outcome of the engagement that a person shows to get the things done in well managed manner. This boosts dedication among the team members to get the set targeted goals. An individual adopts this behavior because of the reason that he wants to retain the membership of with the organization. When the employees are loyal to their organizations/projects they develop a tendency not to leave the organization/project and when they remain in the organization/project for a required time period they work there to achieve the set goals, thus contributing towards project success. Further the project manager and the team members enjoy the benefits of being committed like decrease in role stress, having a sense of empowerment, less job insecurity and trust in the leadership (Krahn, Hartman, 2004). CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL AND RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 3.1. Conceptual framework Crawford (2007) presented one framework called as the project management knowledge and performance competence framework and highlighted major contributors to this in a triangle such as the competence, the ability to manage the project and the personality characteristics possessed by the project manager. It can be assumed while studying the framework that the existence of competencies is not merely sufficient to ensure project success. The three components of the project management knowledge and performance competence framework equally apply to this study. The study has highlighted that fact the not only possession of the project managers competencies are important but at the same time the commitment of the project manager is important to use those existing competencies. The commitment of the project manager can also consider as a personality characteristic. The project managers who possess this characteristic may be better project managers as compared to those who lack this aspect (Maltzman, Shirley, 2013). The model presented below examines the two competencies of project managers having impact on the project success and further examines the mediating role of commitment that they hold towards the projects they are performing. Thus on the basis of the framework discussed above hypotheses are developed that are presented below the model. 3.2. The model Figure 1. The hypothesized model for examination 3.3. Hypotheses developed Hypothesis 1. There is appositive impact of human resources management competencies on the construction project success. Hypothesis 2. There is a positive impact of quality management competencies on the construction project success. Hypothesis 3. There is a positive impact of affective commitment on the construction project success. Hypothesis 4. The affective commitment mediates the relationship of human resource management competencies and project success. Hypothesis 5. The affective commitment possessed by the project managers mediate the relationship between quality management competencies and project success. CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY 4.1. Research design The research design can be better understood by having a clear picture of the nature of the study to be conducted. The current study is quantitative in nature as the responses gathered are numeric in their existence and this numeric nature helps the researcher to manage the responses easily and at the same time it provides the privilege to put the data into the statistical software and then the statistical software provides an edge to compute data in a sophisticated manner. The handling of large data is only possible using the software that may not be manually possible for any statistician to handle and compute the responses. Besides being quantitative the data collected was primary in nature and the first hand information was collected from the construction project employees. The first hand information has the capacity to be fresh and the latest facts are generally reported by the respondent about the existing situation. The Primary data was emphasized by the researcher for the reason that the employees are best sources of information and they tell generally the truth about their immediate supervisors/ bosses/ leaders. If they have any concern regarding their immediate bosses they report it in true spirit. Further it is mentioned that the responses collected were cross-sectional in nature. The cross-sectional data represents the data that is collected in a single shot, or generally called as single point in time. The single time responses provide an opportunity to be collected a large number of responses in a limited period of time. The large number of questionnaires is generally distributed among respondents once and after some period of time the responses are collected back from the respondents. No further requests are made to the respondents for more information or refill the questionnaire. 4.2. Sampling design The sampling design includes the information about the population and sampling used for the study. The population of the study is comprised of the construction employees working in the construction industry in Pakistan especially in the Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities. The selected project for the study is Bahria Town and in Bahria Town only one commercial project was selected that is called as the Dominions Mall. The total employees working, related to construction, were 450. The sample size is calculated using a Yamanes formula. The formula presented by Yamane (1967) is provided below. The formula and the calculation of sample size are presented below n N 1 N(e)2 Where n represents sample size, N represents population considered for the study and e is the level of precision considered. Keeping in view the formula reported above the sample size calculated is given below n 450 212 1 450(0.05)2 The sample size calculated for the study is 212 teaching and non-teaching staff members were selected from the private sector universities. 4.3. Data collection instrument The data collection instrument used for the study was closed ended questionnaire. The closed ended questionnaire provides an edge to collect the concrete responses without variation and change in the sequence that helps the researcher to develop a data sheet in a proper sequence and help in saving time to feed in data to the software. The responses gathered in a sequence helps the researcher to prepare a set format and put into the software. The software is capable enough to take in the formatted data and computation is done as per the requirements of the researchers. The questionnaire was bifurcated into three major sections. 4.3.1. Demographic information The respondents were asked to provide the basic information about their age, education, experience and gender. The separate categories were developed for recording the responses from the employees working in the construction industry. The categories developed were helpful to the respondents in responding to the most relevant category that belonged to them. The questionnaire is provided at the end of the thesis for better orientation of the researchers and readers. 4.3.2. Independent variables The independent variables for the current study include the project managers competencies related to managing human resources and managing the quality of the project being delivered to the client/organization. The questionnaires were adopted from the earlier research studies keeping in view the validity of the instruments. Further the validity was again examined for the adopted scales using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The questionnaires for examining the human resource management competency and project quality management competency were selected from Ofori (2014). The items were written in a form of a neutral statements and the scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree was added to each statement for better response generation. It makes responses convenient for the reader to read the statement and respond to the statement asked. 4.3.3. Dependent variable The dependent variable for the current study was project success and the responses from the construction industry were recorded. The questionnaire was adopted from the study of Dvir (2006). The same Likert type scale was used for measuring the responses where 1 represented strongly disagree and 5 represented strongly agree. 4.3.3. Mediating variable Another variable that is used for the study is organizational commitment and only one aspect from the Meyer and Allens questionnaire is taken for the study. The affective dimension is taken for the reason that the more loyal the employees are towards their organizations they show more energy towards performing their best. The questionnaire was adopted form the Meyer and Allen (1991) study and the Likert Scale used was 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. 4.4. Procedure used for gathering responses The respondents were reached by personally visiting the construction points and by having the consent of the project manager the questionnaires were distributed. It was ensured that people having qualification not less than Bachelors degree should be invited for gathering responses. These employees directly working under a project manager and were supposed to report to the project manager for each and every activity performed and whenever they required resources. The criterion for selecting respondents on the basis of education level was followed for the reason that the respondents should be able to respond to the questionnaires as the English is not the first language in Pakistan. Below the Bachelors level it was possible that the respondents may not be able to read and understand the peculiarities of the research and the questionnaire distributed. It is further necessary to highlight here that the respondents were performing different responsibilities such as dealing in accounts, procurement, supplies etc. Generally the people who are directly involved in the construction actitivites that is the activities that are related to building up of a structure and other aspects do not have that much qualification to invite them for response generation. The data thus gathered was fed into software commonly called as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and SmartPLS for further processing. The results are produced using various statistical tests for examination and to fulfill the requirements of the objectives set for the study. The proceeding chapter puts light on the statistical tests used.CHAPTER 5 RESULTS 5.1. Demographic information The age of the respondents is given in the table provided below Table 1 Age of Construction EmployeesFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent26-35 years2913.713.713.736-45 years8339.239.252.846-55 years7937.337.390.1Above 55 years219.99.9100.0Total212100.0100.0 The age is recorded keeping in view the maturity of the respondents in terms of their brought up and for the job they are performing. The maturity is required for understanding the research requirements and the nature of job being performed. Also it helps in developing an understanding regarding identifying the factors that are playing role in influencing their job whether those factors are related to the persons, or the job environment. The majority of the people who responded to the questionnaire were having age linit between 36 to 45 years (39.2). These were young enough to work effectively for the construction company and they were energetically involved in the construction project activities. Thus were able to respond effectively regarding the practices adopted by their project manager. Table 2 Education Level of Construction Sector RespondentsFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Bachelors2.9.9.9Masters14267.067.067.9MS6831.631.699.5Total212100.0100.0 The educational qualification is necessary to consider while conducting any research study. This helps researcher to ensure the authenticity of the information in terms of at-least reading and understanding the statements written in the questionnaire. the respondents, when asked about their bosses, generally provide healthy information as they are the people who have the understanding and quench for improvement in the work practices. Majority of the respondents were having Masters Degree (67.0) that is more than the half of the respondents in all. The Master degree holders have the good understanding about the research as majority of the respondents having business/management and engineering background have the potential to understand the worth of the research and thus provide genuine responses to the questionnaires distributed. Table 3 Experience of Construction EmployeesFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent1-5 years6731.631.631.66-10 years12759.959.991.5above 11 years188.58.5100.0Total212100.0100.0 The experience of the respondents matter a lot while conducting any research study for the reason that the more time spent on job ensures the better development of job related practices and the practices adopted by the supervisors and colleagues. The information thus gathered formt he people who were having job experience between the 1 to 11 years provided a healthy input for the current research study. Among these people majority were having experience between 6 to 11 years working the construction industry. 5.2. Reliability of Scales The reliability statistics for project success questionnaire is provided below. The project success is related to the construction projects and the Cronbachs alpha reliability is provided below in table 4 onwards. Table 4 Reliability for Project Success scaleCronbachs AlphaN of Items.91412The experts suggest that the reliability of any scale should be greater than 0.7. Looking at the table it becomes clear that the reliability of this scale meets the required criterion. Further the reliability of the human resources competencies scale is examined using the same procedure in statistical package for social sciences. The test used is Cronbachs alpha. The results of the reliability statistics of this scale is presented in table 2 below Table 5 Reliability for HRM Competencies scaleCronbachs AlphaN of Items.8217 The Cronbachs alpha reliability for the human resources competencies scale is provided above that shows a comfortable results to meet the requirements. The reliability above 0.7 is considered good as per statistical experts and this scale is having reliability 0.821 having adequate strength. The reliability of the Project Quality Competency Scale is examined using SPSS and the test used was the same that the researcher has used for examining the reliability of the other scales. The results are presented in the table 3 below Table 6 Reliability for Project Quality Management scaleCronbachs AlphaN of Items.9577The reliability statistics for the scale used for the study show that it has seven items and the value of Cronbachs alpha is 0.957 that shows a high reliability of the scale. 5.3. Normality of data Normality of data is required to apply the tests like correlation and regression. The normal distribution of data shows that the outliers are no more there to effect the results of the study. The Outliers are the extreme values that drag the data towards either side of the normal distribution curve thus causing the problem of skewness. The figures presented below show that the data was normally distributed and the regression and correlation analysis can be conducted. Figure 1. Showing the Normal distribution of the data gathered. Figure 2. Showing the normal distribution linear line. 5.4. Validity of measures The validity of the measures used for the study is examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by the help of Smart PLS in which the CFA is examined using outer loadings. The statistical experts have given a point of view that the factor loading for each item should be equal to or greater than 0.7 (Hair et al., 2016). The loadings for each scale are provided below Table 7 Outer Loadings ConstructItemOuter Loading Project SuccessPS10.8265PS20.7713PS30.8017PS40.8466PS50.7582PS60.7770PS70.7582PS80.8403PS90.8430PS100.8071PS110.8330PS120.8271 Human Resource Management CompetenciesHRMC10.8157HRMC20.8107HRMC30.7729HRMC40.7596HRMC50.8195HRMC60.7925HRMC70.7547HRMC80.8025HRMC90.7245HRMC100.7090HRMC110.7391 Project Quality Management CompetenciesPQMC10.8169PQMC20.8890PQMC30.8067PQMC40.8668PQMC50.8590PQMC60.8367PQMC70.8168 Affective Organizational CommitmentOC10.8133OC20.8011OC30.7769OC40.9547OC50.9795OC60.9788 Wong (2013) recommended that the loadings of all indicators should be greater than 0.7 using Smart PLS the reliability of the latent variable is assessed through outer loadings. The indicator reliability of each construct is adequate and it fulfills the requirement of the statistical analysis for further proceeding. 5.5. Correlation analysis The correlation analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between independent to independent variables and independent to dependent variables. The adequate relationship is required to further use the variables for regression. The range of the correlation is distributed like this. If the correlation coefficient shows the value between 0.2 and 0.4 it is depicting a weak correlation between the variables, if the correlation coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.6 it is showing the moderate level of relationship and if its value is between 0.6 to 0.9, and above it is showing a stronger correlation. The total value of correlation ranges between 0 and 1. Table 8 CorrelationsHRMCPQMCOCPSHRMCPearson Correlation1.914.905.918Sig. (2-tailed).000.000.000N212212212212PQMCPearson Correlation.9141.944.960Sig. (2-tailed).000.000.000N212212212212OCPearson Correlation.905.9441.959Sig. (2-tailed).000.000.000N212212212212PSPearson Correlation.918.960.9591Sig. (2-tailed).000.000.000N212212212212. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The correlation analysis is conducted to examine whether there exists any relationship between the independent variables as well as between independent variables and the dependent variable so that it can also be regressed. The healthy correlation between the variables showed a comfortable relationship between the variables. The human resource management competencies, denoted by HRMC in this study has correlation coefficient (r 0.918, p 0.000) showing a significant and strong positive correlation with project success. Similarly looking at the other independent variable that is project quality management competencies, denoted by PQMC (r 0.960, p 0.000) shows a strong positive and significant relationship with project success. At the same time it is noted that the organizational commitment of the construction employees (OC) also shows a strong positive and significant relationship (r 0.959, p 0.000) with the construction project success. This analysis shows that these constructs have adequate correlation with project success and provide a justification to proceed further for conducting higher level statistical analysis. 5.6. Regression Analysis The regression analysis is a stronger tool that helps in determining the impact of independent variables on the dependent variable and further helps in determining that which independent variables have how much impact on the dependent variable by looking at separately the beta coefficients provided. The regression analysis is presented in the tables below Table 9 Model SummaryModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimatedimension01.974a.950.949.18043a. Predictors (Constant), OC, HRMC, PQMCb. Dependent Variable PSThe coefficient of determination that is used for examining the impact of the independent variables on the dependent variable. the value of R square shows that the combined effect of human resource management competencies, project quality management competencies and affective commitment has a strong impact on project success that is R2 0.950, simply putting these have 95 impact n the project success. This shows that it has a stronger effect on the completion of projects in time. Table 10 CoefficientsModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.BStd. ErrorBeta1(Constant).094.126.746.456HRMC.250.076.1333.293.001PQMC.362.044.4298.270.000OC.358.041.4338.721.000a. Dependent Variable PS The results of the regression analysis, showing the beta values makes it clear that the constructs including human resource management competencies (beta 0.250, p 0.001) has positive effect on the project success in the construction industry in Pakistan. Similarly the project quality management competencies (beta 0.362, p 0.000) has a positive impact on the achievement of project success. Moreover the affective commitment (beta 0.358, p 0.000) possessed by the construction employees also helps ensuring construction project success. It is extracted from the results that the human resources management competencies and project quality management competencies possessed by the project manager has a greater influence on ensuring project success in the construction industry in Pakistan. Further the organizational commitment possessed by the construction project employees is another important factor having positive impact on project success. 5.7. The mediation Analysis 5.7.1. The direct effect To examine the mediation the direct effect is examined first to determine the direct relationship of the constructs and to look at their t-values that are the values of significance. The table presented below show the direct effects of the relationships established. Table 11 Direct Effect CoefficientsMeanT Statistics P ValuesHRMC – PS0.2630.2222.5390.049OC – PS0.2120.1613.8990.038PQMC – PS0.2630.2045.4740.036 Table presented above show that the beta coefficients of the HRMC is 0.263 with a t value greater than 2.0 and p value less than 0.05. this shows all the relationships are positive and significant. The relationships examined here are direct in nature and no mediation is done yet. The following stage will enable the researcher to examine the mediation analysis for the current data set. 5.7.2. The indirect effect The organizational commitment (affective commitment) of the employees is taken as the mediator for the current study. The following table shows the organizational commitment (OC) as a mediator. Table 12 Indirect (Mediation) Effects CoefficientMeanT ValuesP ValuesHRMC – OC – PS0.1480.2552.7700.047PQMC – OC – PS0.0040.1053.3740.038 The results of indirect effect show that even after addition of organizational commitment as a mediator the beta coefficients remain positive and significant. The values of t statistics are greater than 2.0 and the p values are significant having value less than 0.05. From the previous table showing the direct effects it became clear that both the competencies possessed by the construction project managers, such as the human resources management competencies and the project quality management competencies have positive relationship with construction project success and from this table it is further added that the organizational commitment (affective commitment) is contributing positively towards achieving construction project success. The affective commitment is mediating the relationship between human resource management competencies and project success and project quality management competencies and project success. 5.8. Summary of results H1 – Human resources management competencies and construction project success (Accepted). H2 – Quality management competencies and construction project success (Accepted). H3 – Affective commitment and construction project success (Accepted). H4 – Affective commitment mediates the relationship of HRMC and PS (Accepted). H5 – Affective commitment mediates the relationship between PQMC and PS (Accepted) CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 6.1. Discussion of results The discussion section is based on the comparison of results of the current study with the earlier studies done considering the similar relationships. All the hypotheses developed were approved. This is to keep in mind that the majority of the earlier studies have tested the similar linkages in different contexts rather than construction industry. The results of the linkages tested are in-line with the earlier research studies for which the discussion is provided below The human resources are the assets for any organization, the strategic point view adopted by the organizations provide them the competitive edge and let them become market leaders. Taking care of human resources does not only mean to provide them the healthy financial resources but also the timely resources provided and the information provided to make the operations smooth also grantees the success of any project (Thi, C.H., Swierczek, 2007). Takey and Carvalho (2015) noted that at the time of decision making the managers generally linger on and the time decisions are not generally made that harms the health of the projects. The respondents in this study reported negatively to the statement asked regarding delayed decision making and approved that their manager was capable enough to take timely decisions that made the construction project a positive outcome. A good project manager is one who influences and motivates the employees on positive grounds. The respondents reported that their project manager was the one who took care of them and motivated them by rewards and at times punishments when required. The rewards became a source of positive competition among the employees working and made them on track for better construction project outcomes (Sumner, M., Powell, 2013). The project manager, as per view point of the respondents, was the one who delegated right work to the right people and this helped him to avoid confusions and helped the employees to do the relevant work in time and within budget. At the same time if the employees needed some guidance regarding some problem they were open to discussion and the project manager provided them smooth support during those times of difficulty (Stewart, G.L., Manges, Ward, 2016). In the current era the clients are demanding more quality due to the fact that they want to avoid the disaster risks form their lives. The higher the quality standards followed the lesser are the chances of compromised safety. At the same time it is noted that the good quality delivered to the customers the positive word of mouth can be obtained from them thus ensuring brighter chances of expansion of business (Silvius, A.J.G., Schipper, 2016). The continuous improvements in the project related activities performed are the signal of being positive towards the project and customer satisfaction. The project managers paying attention towards the project ensures that the improved project outcomes would be realized that count towards better clients satisfaction thus leading to better project outcomes, as per Project Management Institute (PMI, 2008). The project well planned can grantee the positive outcomes during commencement and after completion. The well planned activities make customers satisfied and the trust is build between the client and the project team members as they keep their words and keep the in time and budget. This qualifies for the adoption of the golden triangle including the three aspects such as time, quality and cost. It means to say that if thse aspects are taken care of by the project mangers side it ensures the better outcomes related to the project and overall organizational performance (Pinto, J. K., Slevin, 1988). Project success can be ensured by following the standards set before commencement. It requires meeting the technical specifications as well as meeting the time limitations to make a project a real success. Further the customers in the current age are more cost conscious and this becomes the responsibility of the project manger to meet the cost requirements. The respondents stated in the questionnaire that their mangers were capable enough to meet the cost/budget requirements that made them good project managers thus making a project a success. This also counted towards the better customer/client satisfaction. When the end user is satisfied, it automatically means that the project went successful and the project managers are regarded as the effective managers (Olasupo, A.R., Ibrahim, O.O., Gazal, 2012). The fairness in practices, the trust developed and the behavior of the project manager inculcates the organizational commitment among the employees working there and this further leads to enhancement of the attraction between the company and the employees. This trust factor is the major contributor towards affective organizational commitment among employees. the employees become happy and they try to retain their relationships with the project manager and the company. The feel as if the organization in which they are working is their own organization and they try making every effort for the betterment of the organization/project. The emotionally attached employees adopt such behavior that is organizational directed instead of self directed, they remain motivated to contribute towards the organization and at-times adopt the behavior called as organizational citizenship behavior (Ofori, 2014). The committed employees are the assets for the organization and feel that the organization is their own organization and thus do not think of jumping to the other organization. When the employees are retained and sustained in the same organization this helps organizations to save the addition costs of hiring the employees and training them for making them seasoned to the organizational environment (Meyer Allen, 1991). The workers working for the organization for longer period of times develop an organizational identity and they try to make their way in the same organization through think can thin. The performance goes up and the organization can develop a competitive edge by retaining the tacit knowledge within the organization (Muller, R., Turner, 2007). 6.2. Conclusion The results revealed that the competencies possessed by the project managers are the necessary component in ensuring project success. The higher the number of competencies and their strength the higher are the chances of attaining construction project success. In this study the researcher revealed that the human resource management competencies and project quality management competencies are the most important competencies that helps ensuring project success. Moreover the people who are committed to the construction organization put in their best efforts to make a project real success, thus the organizational commitment (affective) has a significant role in attaining success of a construction project. 6.3. Implications and suggestions Project managers have to maintain and sustain a team of committed members for ensuring project success. The managers have to take care of their human resources as they play a role of ambassador to the project manager and the organization as a whole and their word of mouth has significant impact on the reputation of the managers and organization. The quality is the key to success. The managers focusing on the quality aspect are generally regarded as the successful managers and the higher quality generally ensures higher satisfaction of the clients. Quality is defined from various perspectives in which one strongest definition comes from the customer/clients perspective. The higher the satisfaction due to quality the higher are the chances of developing a good reputation in the market and higher are the chances of expanding the business. The data is collected from the major construction contributors in the country that is Bahria Town. They have developed their name and earned lot of profits due to the quality deliverables. Now they are enjoying a good reputation in the market. Further the HR related policies and practices are healthier and different benefits are offered to the employees as compared to the other construction companies. That is the reason that these two companies are regarded as best among the communities and general public in Pakistan. It can also be seen by having the financial worth of the companies and the area covered by these companies. The committed employees ensure higher performance and contribute more towards the betterment of the organizational goals. The project managers must focus on adopting the practices that boost employee commitment level and motivate them to work for the company in letter and spirit. The defects detection is one of the important aspects in ensuring quality. The managers having the capability of defects detection during the commencement of project ensures safety from losses. This is a two edge sward that can save the organization and client form bearing losses. The project managers having the potential to reduce the losses have generally good reputation in the market and thus expand their business. Taking care of employees that are human resources related competencies ensure development of trust among employees and their leaders and this helps the project managers to get into the relationship that further boosts effectiveness in operations resulting in achievement of success. 6.4. Limitations and future directions The development of this document for the achievement of MS degree was a huge task to accomplish. Like other research studies this study also possesses few limitations. The First limitation of the study comes from the selection of limited constructs for the study, the time and financial constraints restricted the researcher to go beyond the selection of these constructs. The work well begun is half done so the researcher believed in bringing in meaningful insights by examining the link between the selected constructs that were seen deficient in the existing literature especially in the context of Pakistan construction sector. In the light of the framework developed for the study the researcher recommends to conduct the same study in other project based organizations for better and in-depth thoughts. This will help the research community to generalize the results to other sectors. Moreover the sample size selection was a limiting factor for this study as the people who were most relevant to the study were included and the number of people who were most reverent was limited in number in the projects selected for the study. It is recommended that the enhancement in the sample size may bring in more interesting insights. The categorical division of the respondents will also add worth to the study. The inclusion of the technical and non-technical competencies or the skills related to the soft and hard side of commencement of the project is the valuable contributors to the similar studies. The techniques used for data collection and analysis such as the inclusion of interviews and the use of open ended questionnaires will be the sources of value addition to the current framework or the similar frameworks by considering diverse range of construction on either side of the model that is the independent side and the dependent side. Further the mediator which is an important factor in influencing the relationship between the constructs can also be considered by adding something differently such as the satisfaction of employees can influence the relationship of project managers competencies and project success, also the workplace incivility prevailing in the work ennviroenment is another aspect that can be examined.REFERENCES Agarwal, N., Rathod, U. (2006) Defining success for software projects An exploratory revelation. International Journal of Project Management, 24(4), 358370 Ahmad, A., Younis, M.S., Ahmad, N., Anwar, N. (2015). 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Bahria Town, Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahria_Townhttps//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahria_Town Winch, G.M. (2009). Managing Construction Projects. (2nd ed.)., Wiley-Blackwell, Singapore Wong, K, K, K.(2013).Partial least structural equation modeling (PLS_SEM) techniques using smartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1),1-32. The Cover Letter Dear Respondent, The current request is to record your responses for the purpose of the research studies that is necessarily being conducted for the completion of MS Project Management Degree. It is to assure you that the current responses recorded will only be used for the purpose of the research study and will be keep confidential. I am thankful for your genuine responses. Regards Amir Shafat MS Scholar SP15-RPM-612QUESTIONNAIRE Part-A Demographics Age (years) 26-35 36-45 36-55 above 55 Experience (years) 1-5 6-10 11-15 Gender Male Female Education Bachelors Masters MS PhD. Part B Constructs PLEASE MARK EACH STATEMENT AS 1 STRONGLY DISAGREED, 2 DISAGREED, 3 NEITHER DISAGREED NOR AGREED, 4 AGREED AND 5 STRONGLY AGREED. Organizational commitment/Affective Commitment Meyer, J., Allen, N. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational Commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.OC1I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization.12345OC 2I really feel as if this organizations problems are my own.12345OC 3I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization.12345OC 4I do not feel emotionally attached to this organization. 12345OC 5I do not feel like part of the family at my organization. 12345OC 6This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me. 12345 Thank you for your responses PAGE MERGEFORMAT 7 Start paragraph from one tab inside. Respected Sir, UPdated Remove initials Dear Sir Removed Remove repeatitions Sir Removed Whaat aare their findings and what they have recommended to do Respected Sir, Updated. T should be capital Corrected Sir Use here. Updated Sir. Remove initials Removed Remove initials Removed Start paragraph from one tab inside Updated Sir make a proper paragraph by pushing it one tab inside. Done Sir Provide reason that why you have selected only affective commitment. Material Added Sir. Check spellings Corrected Remove this word from all tables. Removed sir. Remove initials Spellings Corrected Sir one tab inside Done one tab inside Done HR Management Competencies Project Success Quality Management Competencies Affective Commitment GBAH(8KUU zGP_(mx 7W4LmS)zQW 9YuaK -dDa qOq23Q0vpI Bhkoe3s M W_wDBNNSSs CpM 2lD.g0pX5Da9VIz2X
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