Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

Identify and briefly describe the main body systems,

The human body is made up of 10 different systems all of which have to work along each other to keep the human body alive these systems consist of

–The skeletal system; this is made up of the bones , cartilage and joints there job being to support, protect, give the body strength ,shape, and movement. -The Muscular system-this is made up of skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles this helps the body with movement of the body. The Nervous systems- consisting of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and nerve endings this controls and coordinates’ all of the body’s functions and coordination’s. The Respiratory system- consisting of the lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar sacs and the alveoli there job being to deliver oxygen to the blood and also to take away carbon dioxide from the body.
The Cardiovascular systems- consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and arteries veins capillaries and blood these help the flow of blood and nutrients through the body. The Lymphatic systems- consisting of lymph vessels, central lymphoid tissue, peripheral lymphoid organs, lymphocytes all of which help the body with drainage and protection. The Endocrine systems – consisting of the liver (endocrine part) , endocrine glands pituity gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands ,pancreas (endocrine part),adrenal glands, pancreas (endocrine part),testicles (endocrine part) ovaries (endocrine part )These help the body regulate all of its functions (chemical coordination). The Digestive system- oral cavity, esophagus, stomach ,small intestine ,large intestine, anus, liver, pancreas ,salivary glands ,teeth, tongue these all work together in the absorbs ion of food and digestion. The Urinary system- kidneys, urethra, urinary bladder these regulate the body’s internal environment and production and excretion of urine. The Male reproductive system- penis, testicles these aid in the formation of sperms and semen and also the fertilization of the female. The Female reproductive system- consisting of the uterus, ovaries, vulva, Libya and clitoris these form the eggs and help with carrying the forming fetes during pregnancy.

-ENDOCRINES DESCRIBE THE GLANDES IN THE BODY THAT PASS HORMONES THROUGH THE BODY BY SECREATIONS THROUGH THE BLOOD.

Analyze the structure of a named organ explaining how different tissue contributes to the effective function of that organ-
THE HEART-
The heart is made up by four chambers which all work together to stop blood from flowing backwards. These four chambers consist of the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and finally the left ventricle. The wall of the left ventricle is a lot wider than the right because it has to expel blood all around the human body, whereas the right ventricle only has the job of expelling blood to the lungs so therefore is a lot thinner. The heart being one of the human body’s most complex organ’s has its very own blood supply from the coronary arteries. Blood is made up of a pale yellow liquid named plasma ,plasma carries broken up carbon dioxide and food , red blood cells which carry oxygen around the body as well as white blood cells these little cells which help the body to fight off infection also have platelets floating around in them which help the blood to clot .Red blood cells contain a chemical called hemoglobin, when this mixes with oxygen it forms a chemical called oxyhemoglobin, when the blood moves around the body to places where there is already oxygen being used oxyhemoglobin releases the oxygen and turns back into hemoglobin. All cells need oxygen to release energy. Oxygen comes from red blood cells in the capillaries, capillaries have a thin wall which lets gases move in and out quickly. Most of the gas exchange in the body takes place in the capillaries. Oxygen moves from high volumes in the blood to lower volumes in body cells. Carbon dioxide also moves from high volumes in the blood cells to lower volumes in the blood. The heart’s muscle tissue is a specialized form of muscle tissue that has evolved to pump blood around the body. Cardiac muscle (heart) is only found in the heart and makes up the main frame of the heart. The heart beats continuously for your entire life time. Because the heart maintains its own rhythm, the cardiac muscle has developed the ability to quickly send signals so all the cells in the heart can contract together as a team.
Cardiac muscle tissue is made up of interlocking muscle cells.
These interlocking muscle cells appear to have light and dark bands when seen through a microscope. The dark bands are areas of thick protein and stop light penetrating the cell making it appear darker. Between the dark bands are filaments made of actin protein that allows light to penetrate through , when the muscle fibers contract , myosin pulls the actin filaments together like a spring to shrink the muscle cell and make it contract. One cell by itself is powerless but all the cardiac muscle cells working together are better equipped to pump all of the blood through the heart in less than a minute. If the hearts arteries aren’t working properly this can cause a heart attack caused by a blood clot which blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. This usually begins with the buildup of fatty deposits on the lining of the arteries. The chances of heart disease can be reduced by changing diet and cutting fat out of the diet other things that can cause heart attack are also obesity, smoking ,excess alcohol, lack of exercise and extreme stress.

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