Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

HEALTHCARE STATISTICS AND MANAGEMENT APPLICATION
BY
CHERUIYOT JACKSON K
IN14/20374/15
0724450854
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 System development methodology
This refers to the framework that is used to structure, plan and control the process of developing a system. In my Healthcare System I decide to use Waterfall Model in system methodology.

Waterfall model is earliest SDLC approach used in software development and its only allow each phase to be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases.

The waterfall Model illustrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow. This means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In this waterfall model, the phases do not overlap.

3.1.0 Waterfall Model Design.

Waterfall approach was first System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Model to be used widely in Software Engineering to ensure success of the project. In “The Waterfall” approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases.

In this Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase sequentially. The following illustration is a representation of the different phases of the Waterfall Model.

Waterfall sequential stages is as follows;

The sequential phases in Waterfall model are ;Requirement Gathering and analysis ? All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase and documented in a requirement specification document.

System Design ? The requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and the system design is prepared. This system design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and helps in defining the overall system architecture.

Implementation ? With inputs from the system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality, which is referred to as Unit Testing.

Integration and Testing ? All the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. Post integration the entire system is tested for any faults and failures.

Deployment of system ? Once the functional and non-functional testing is done; the product is deployed in the customer environment or released into the market.

Maintenance ? There are some issues which come up in the client environment. To fix those issues, patches are released. Also to enhance the product some better versions are released. Maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment.

3.2 System Analysis and design tools.

System analysis is a process of collecting and interpreting facts identifying the problems and decomposition of a system into its components. System design is a process of planning a new business system or replacing an existing system by defining its components or modules to satisfy the specific requirements.
ER diagram is on of the analysis tools and designing tool. ER diagram is a type of flowchart that illustrates how entities such as people, objects or concepts relate to each other within a system. ER Diagrams are most often used to design or debug relational databases in the fields of software engineering and research. Also known as ERDs or ER Models, they use a defined set of symbols such as rectangles, diamonds, ovals and connecting lines to depict the interconnectedness of entities, relationships and their attributes.

The figure below illustrate the ER diagram for Healthcare System:
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3.3 system implementation tools /techniques.

System implementation can be defined as putting a decision into effect and delivering the system into production. There are various implementation techniques which include: System changeover .In system changeover it Involves changing or switching from existing system to the new developed system.

There are methods under system changeover in system implementation which include;
-Direct change-over- The old system ceases its operation and the new system commences operation the next day.

Parallel change-over-This is a method where new and old systems are allowed to run side by side or simultaneously until it is proved beyond reasonable doubt that the new system is working and all the benefits are realized.

-Phased change-over- The method involves implementation of a system on step-by-step approach
-Pilot change-over- It involves installation of new system but using it only in one part of the organization on an experimental basis.
In my system healthcare system ,Pilot change over is the method I use ,its because its only one part of organization is installed so that its results will be noted from its output. For example ,Healthcare management and statistics system is install in mtrh branch in Uasin Gishu county before transform to Mtrh main hospital. The main advantage of using pilot change-over is that failure or problems can be identified and addressed without wide-spread impact to the organization.

3.4 System Testing and validation.

Generally all programs should be tested before system conversion. In my system I decided to use black box testing. In black box testing It focuses on functional requirements of software. It attempts to find errors in the following categories:
– Incorrect or missing functions
– Interface errors
– Data structure errors
-Performance errors
– Initialization and termination errors
These methods are based on the input and output to and from a program. They do not emphasize on the internal structure of a program.
Our clients came up with their own test scripts and scenarios to rigorously test the system prior to deployment.

Software testing is conducted on the following aspects or stages:
(i) Unit testing: testing of program segments that do specific functions
(ii) Module testing: involves testing of interrelated units within a program, which
perform a specific task.
(iii) Integration testing: Also known as verification or program construction testing. It
involves moving downwards through a control hierarchy i.e. from subordinate
modules it can either be top-down integration or bottom-up integration.
(iv) System testing: involves linking all modules of a suite to test whether they are
interfacing properly.
(v) Alpha and Beta testing: Alpha testing is testing that is conducted at the software
developer’s site by both the developer and the user or customer. Beta testing is
testing a system at the user’s or customer’s site. It is conducted by the end user of
the system.
(vi) Configuration review: It is conducted to ensure that each element of the software is
properly developed i.e. to ensure that each module’s configuration is proper.
(vii) Recovery testing: Is conducted to force software to fail in a number of ways and
verify that recovery is properly performed.
(viii) Security testing: It attempts to verify that protection mechanism built into the
system works.
(ix) Stress testing: Designed to confront a program with abnormal structure and
abnormal quantity of resources e.g. a large volume of transaction inputs to see how
the program can cope up with such abnormally.
(x) Performance testing: Conducted to evaluate the software performance e.g. run time,
response time, quality of output etc.
(xi) Acceptance testing: This is carried out by software users and management representation for the following reasons: To discover software errors not yet detected, to discover the actual and exact demands of the system ,to discover if any major changes required by the system can be adopted.

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