Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

DB 1- Corruption
Brittany Wallace
Liberty University
Key Term and Why I am Interested in it
Corruption is the key term that I chose for this module. I am interested in doing further research on this term due to it being a major concern for businesses in general. I also work in Human Resources and corruption can affect aspects of processes within our department. When hiring people, we have to pay close attention to favoritism and nepotism. It is important that we do not abuse our authority in areas of training, recruitment, and promotion. I feel that when I do further research I will be able to fully understand the issue of corruption and how it relates to businesses worldwide.

Explanation of the Key Term
Corruption is defined as the “misuse of public power for private profit or political gain. It represents a hazard to free trade and investment, a threat to democracy and development, and, in collusion with international crime, a danger to national security” (Satterlee, 2018, p. 88). Corruption is an issue for individuals involved in global business. The problem of corruption has been talked about across the world in various venues such as policy forums, government official speeches, international conferences, and international organizations. Government leaders blame corruption as a motive for withholding debt relief and foreign aid. Corruption is not only a source of concern for government, entrepreneurs, and private individuals. It is an issue for society as a whole (Satterlee, 2018).

Major Article Summary
“Corruption crime and punishment: evidence from China’s state corruption audits”, by Guangyou Liu and Siyu Liu is the article I chose. The goal of the paper is to answer the following two research questions: Do corruption cases present different features before and since the new administration in China? How are criminal penalties affected by these corruption features? The research that is included in this article refers to Chinese corruption cases investigated by the Central Commission of Discipline Inspection (Liu, G, 2017; Liu, S., 2017).

The investigation is created on the online disclosure of 269 state corruption audits and the consequences, which were available to the public through China’s National Audit Office since 2011. The official reports were examined by manual coding and an appropriate-sized sample of corruption cases were selected. The authors also adopted Welch’s t-test and regression model methods. This was done in order to test the research hypotheses significant to the two research questions (Liu, G, 2017; Liu, S., 2017).

In conclusion, the authors determined many things in regards to organizational corruption cases. They concluded that considerably harder criminal penalties were given out to corruption cases that involved large monetary amounts. Also, bribery cases were punished more harshly when compared to other work-related crimes and that single perpetrators received tougher criminal penalties than organizational criminals. It was also determined through observing trends that criminal consequences for corruption have been much harsher in recent years (Liu, G, 2017; Liu, S., 2017).

The finding and conclusions gather practical and theoretical implications. There are not many existing studies left that relate state audits to the anti-corruption campaign and financial crimes that are committed by corrupt governmental officials. Based on the study, audit results for state corruptions could become a good source for research samples and an effective approach to success in anti-corruption campaigns. The audits can play a special role in both national economic supervision and in investigating and punishing corruption crimes. All of these conclusions could be beneficial to policy makers and legislators in China and other developing countries.
Discussion
The article “Corruption crime and punishment: evidence from China’s state corruption audits”, relates to my topic corruption by discussing how individuals are punished for corruption in China. This article also coincides with information in the textbook related to cultural dimensions. Corruption deals with ethics, which is the “study of morality and standards of conduct” (Saterlee, 2018, p. 44). Businesses in China were caught for embezzlement and bribing individuals. This article helped me better understand financial corruptions and how the law deals with it in other countries. I’ve heard about embezzlement cases around me. It was interesting to compare and contrast the consequences against another country. Within any type of business, it is important to be honest with everything that is done. Each company has a code of conduct to follow by and it is important that it be obeyed. Some people think they can get away with things but when audits are completed, the smallest things can pop up. In the end, the best thing to do is following the rules so you will not have to suffer any consequences.
All of the articles that I have read relate to each other due to the fact that they all deal with corruption. “Preventing Corruption in Criminal Justice” investigates the issue of corruption globally and explains the social and economic consequences. It is composed of internal controls, corporate governance mechanisms, and red flag analyses, which organizations can use in order to prevent corruption. This article explained to me how corruption could be prevented within businesses (Peltier-Rivest, 2018). “Corporate anti-corruption disclosure: An examination of the impact of media exposure and country-level press freedom”, investigated whether the differences in media exposure in regards to corporate corruption influence a companies’ anti-corruption disclosures. It was found that the media does have an impact on addressing corruption (Blanc, Islam, Patten, & Branco, 2017). “Corruption, anti-corruption, and human rights: the case of Poland’s integrity system”, discusses how issues can arise in a country’s system of integrity. Poland’s anti-corruption policy became a threat to human and civil rights. When setting up this policy, violations were made which caused people in Poland to get upset. It is important to make sure everything is set in place and no rules are being broken when setting up a policy (Krajewska & Makowski, 2017). “Corruption and Human Rights: Possible Relations”, ties in with the article above. This article investigated if more corruption really did equal more violations of human rights. It was determined that the link between human rights and corruption is not constant. After the study was completed, it was concluded that some countries had stronger impact on human rights than others (Cardona, Ortiz, & Vázquez, 2018). The articles I researched helped me better understand how corruption is displayed within countries and businesses.

References
Blanc, R., Islam, M. A., Patten, D. M., & Branco, M. C. (2017). Corporate anti-corruptiondisclosure. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal,30(8), 1746-1770. Retrieved
from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-02-2015
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Cardona, L. A., Ortiz, H., & Vázquez, D. (2018). Corruption and Human Rights: PossibleRelations. Human Rights Quarterly,40(2), 317-341. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://muse-jhu-edu.ezproxy.liberty.edu/article/694699
Krajewska, A., & Makowski, G. (2017). Corruption, anti-corruption and human rights: The case of Poland’s integrity system. Crime, Law and Social Change,68(3), 325-339. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/article/10.1007%2Fs10611-017-9710-6
Liu, G., & Liu, S. (2017). Corruption crime and punishment: Evidence from China’s statecorruption audits. Journal of Financial Crime,24(4), 601-619. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://doi.org/10.1108/ JFC-06-2016-0044
Peltier-Rivest, D. (2018). Preventing Corruption in Criminal Justice. Understanding andPreventing Corruption,25(2), 545-561. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/JC-11-2014-0048
Satterlee, B. C. (2018). Cross Border Commerce. Raleigh, NC: Synergistics International.

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