Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

Boundary rules
There are four boundary rules. They are- entity, periodicity, going concern and quantitative.
Entity
An entity is something that keeps a separate existence. In business, an entity is an organizational structure that has its own objectives, methods, and records. In accounting, transactions are recorded and financial statement are formed for a specific entity. There is not supposed to be any mixture between the matters of investors and the business led by an entity that they own.
Periodicity
In accounting, periodicity means that accountants will accept that a company’s complex and continuing activities can be distributed up and described in annual, quarterly and monthly financial statements. For example, some earth-moving equipment may involve two years to manufacture but the activities will be distributed up and described in quarterly financial statements. A similar situation happens at a company that improves complex digital systems.
Going concern
The going concern is the supposition that an entity will keep on in business for the predictable future. Equally, this means the entity will not be involuntary to stop actions and settle its assets in the near term at what could be very low fire-sale prices. By creating this statement, the accountant is correct in deferring the respect of certain expenses until a later period, when the entity will seemingly still be in business and using its assets in the most actual way possible.
Quantitative
Quantitative analysis is the use of mathematical models to evaluate data points, with the intent of understanding a situation. This type of analysis is used to expect future outcomes, and is a key concept in financial modeling, as well as in other spaces.
Measurement rules
Measurement rules are the calculation of economic or financial activities in terms of money, hours or other things. There are six measurement rules. They are- money measurement, historic cost, realization, matching, dual aspect and materiality.
Money measurement
The money measurement is a business that should only record an accounting operation if it can be stated in terms of money. This means that the focus of accounting transactions is on quantitative information, rather than on qualitative information. Thus, a large number of items are never imitated in a company’s accounting records, which means that they never seem in its financial statements.
Historic cost
A historical cost is a measure of value used in accounting in which the price of a benefit on the balance sheet is created on its nominal or original cost when got by the company. The historical-cost method is used for assets in the United States under generally known accounting principles (GAAP).
Realization
Realization in accounting, also known as revenue recognition principle, mentions to the application of accumulations concept near the recognition of revenue (income). Under this principle, revenue is recognized by the seller when it is received regardless of whether cash from the transaction has been established or not.
Matching
The matching is involving that revenues and any associated expenses be accepted together in the same period. Thus, if there is a cause-and-effect relationship between revenue and the expenses, record them at the same time. If there is no such relationship, then charge the cost to expense at once. This is one of the most important concepts in accumulation basis accounting, since it dictates that the whole effect of a transaction be noted within the same reporting period.
Dual aspect
The dual aspect is that every business transaction involves recordation in two different accounts. This concept is the source of double entry accounting, which is involved by all accounting frameworks in order to produce dependable financial statements. The concept is gained from the accounting calculation, which states that:
Assets = Liabilities + Equity
Materiality
Materiality is the entrance above which lost or incorrect information in financial statements is considered to have an influence on the decision making of users. Materiality is sometimes taken in terms of net effect on reported profits, or the percentage or dollar change in a exact line item in the financial statements.
Ethical rules
There are four ethical rules. They are- prudence, consistency, objectivity and relevance.
Prudence
Accounting transactions and other events are sometimes unclear but in order to be related we have to report them in time. We have to make estimations needing judgment to counter the doubt. While making judgment we need to be careful and take care. Prudence is a key accounting principle which marks sure that assets and income are not overstated and responsibility and costs are not understated.

Consistency
The consistency is to accept an accounting principle or method, continue to follow it reliably in future accounting periods. Only change an accounting principle or method is the new version in some way increases reported financial effects.
Objectivity
The objectivity is the concept that the financial statements of an organization be based on solid indication. The intent behind this principle is to retain the management and the accounting department of an entity from making financial statements that are biased by the suggestion and biases of the company.
Relevance
Relevance is the concept that the information produced by an accounting system should effect the decision-making of someone checking the information. The concept can include the content of the information and/or its timeliness, both of which can effect decision making.
Bank reconciliation
A bank reconciliation is the course of matching the balances in an entity’s accounting records for a cash account to the matching information on a bank statement. The goal of this process is to establish the differences between the two, and to subscribe changes to the accounting records as suitable. The information on the bank statement is the bank’s record of all contacts impacting the entity’s bank account all through the earlier month.
A bank reconciliation should be done at regular intervals for all bank accounts, to make sure that a company’s cash records are correct. Otherwise, it may find that cash balances are much lower than expected, resulting in bounced checks or overdraft fees. A bank reconciliation will also notice some types of fraud after the fact; this information can be used to design better controls over the receiving and expense of cash.
Control Account
A control account is a summary-level account in the general ledger. This account comprises amassed totals for transactions that are independently kept in subsidiary-level ledger accounts. Control accounts are most commonly used to digest accounts receivable and accounts payable, since these areas comprise a large volume of transactions, and so need to be divided into subsidiary ledgers, rather than strewing up the general ledger with too much full information.
The purpose of the control account is to save the general ledger free of details, however have the correct balance for the financial statements. For example, the Accounts Receivable account in the general ledger might be a control account. If it were a control account, the company would simply update the account with a few amounts, such as total collections for the day, total sales on account for the day, total returns and allowances for the day, etc.

References
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