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Association between Body Mass Index and Asthma
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Association between Body Mass Index and Asthma
Background
Asthma is a chronic disease, which affects the lungs and becomes severe through asthma attacks, which are caused by obstruction of the airways to the lungs (Chastang, 2017). The number of patients suffering from asthma has been rapidly increasing in the United States including children (Chastang, 2017). Asthma attacks can even cause death and patients suffering from Asthma should take precaution against contributing risk factors, which may include cold air, exercises, and pollutants in the air. Body mass index has also been attributed to the rise in Asthma cases (Chastang, 2017). This study is designed to determine the association between BMI and asthma. Factors that relate to BMI and their impact on the development of asthma will be reviewed.
Study Design
In this research, the descriptive research design was used in the study. Descriptive research in this case used case studies to determine the relationship between BMI and the development of asthma (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). This research design also allows for the use of questionnaires, which will be administered to experts and patients suffering from asthma. The questionnaires are meant to provide information from different perspectives where comparisons can be done to help the researcher in making an informed decision in the research analysis (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). The questionnaires will be administered to a targeted sample population of people with asthma cases and others who do not have to give a detailed perception and information regarding the relationship between BMI and asthma (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). The body mass index will be calculated by dividing the body weight mass by the height. Questionnaires will be based on the objectives of the study. Previous research information will also be considered (Creswell & Creswell, 2017).

Association between Body Mass Index and Asthma
Data collection, analysis, and evaluation will involve statistical methods, which will be used to determine a conclusion. Collection of information included children and young adults ranging from 6 to 25 years old who were grouped into two groups which included a 6 to 12 years group and 13 to 25 years group (Agrawal, 2015). Information related to children who were unable to answer the questionnaires was collected via their parents. Analysis of information indicated an increase in the rate of obesity in the last 20 years with children also being affected (Agrawal, 2015). One in every five children suffers from obesity. Asthma attacks are also on the rise in people with obesity. The prevalence of asthma and obesity has been rising in children and young adults in the United States for the last 25 years with a strong connection to individuals with a BMI above 85% (Agrawal, 2015).

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The research was conducted on 200 individuals and the results indicated patients who were obese with BMI of > 30 kg/m2 had asthma (Chastang, 2017). The BMI was calculated based on their weight and their height. The weight was in kilograms while their height was in meters squared. The normal BMI for normal individuals is < 29.9 kg/m2 while for the obese individuals is BMI > 30 kg/m2. 70% of the patients who presented asthma had a BMI above 30 kg/m2. This indicated a connection between asthma and obesity. The increase in asthma cases is directly connected to the increase in obesity rates (Chastang, 2017).
Subject Selection
The study population included children between the age of 6 and 12 years and young adults from the age of 13 to 25 years (Chastang, 2017). 200 questionnaires were administered to the population where help was given for children who were unable to understand the requirements of the questionnaires (Chastang, 2017). Some of the factors considered included the age of the population, the symptoms presented, and the severity of the asthma cases in relation to the BMI. Some of the patients underwent medical examinations to determine other symptoms and factors that could have contributed to the asthma besides the weight factor. Weight was the leading contributor of asthma cases for 70% of the population (Agrawal, 2015).
Experts who had dealt with asthma cases were also included in the selection process. These experts were able to provide useful information based on their experience on asthma cases (Agrawal, 2015). Those unable to use questionnaires, interviews were used on them with the researcher collecting the answers and information provided by this group. The exposure group includes individuals who have a BMI of 25-30 kg/m2, which is grouped as overweight, and individuals with a BMI over 30 kg/m2 who are grouped as obese (Agrawal, 2015).
Measurement Issues
The measurement of exposures and outcomes is useful in determining clear comparisons, which will provide critical information in the study (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). During the research study, several factors required a measurement analysis, which are important in the study analysis and drawing conclusions. Some of the measurement issues include the number of participants, the length of the study, and the selection process (Agrawal, 2015). The grouping on the participants include age grouping which involved classification of participants into two groups which include the age of 6 years to 12, which is the children’s group and from 15 to 25 which included the young adults (Agrawal, 2015).
Majority of these groups were students in schools and this involved visiting schools to access the participants. Obese individuals had a direct relationship with asthma (Chastang, 2017). Increased body weight was associated with increased asthma cases. The weight was measured in kilograms where else the height was measured in meters which was then used to calculate the BMI. A comparison was then conducted between the BMI and asthma occurrences, which were found to be positive (Chastang, 2017).

Possible Bias
The sample population was relatively small for a conclusive research. A small population may end up leaving out useful individuals who may have important information relating to the study. This can be addressed by increasing the sample population to provide a more diverse perspective in collecting information (Garg, Wood, ; C.A.B. International, 2013). Information given by children may be inaccurate due to misunderstood information as well as giving false information in trying to hide some personal aspects of their health. Parents can help in collecting information from children and may help in giving accurate answers (Garg, Wood, ; C.A.B. International, 2013).

Possible Confounding Factors and Effect Modifiers and How to Overcome Their Effect
When examining the relationship between BMI and asthma, other factors that relate to BMI are analyzed and how these factors affect the outcome, which is asthma. Possible confounding factors may include diet, which influences BMI (Garg, Wood, ; C.A.B. International, 2013). Diet is also attributed to the development of asthma in children. Diet is also attributed to a decreased BMI, which reduces the risk of developing asthma in all children (Garg, Wood, ; C.A.B. International, 2013). Effect modifiers include gender where obese women are more likely to develop asthma than men do. This negatively increases the risk factor of BMI to developing asthma (Garg, Wood, ; C.A.B. International, 2013). This is due to the hormonal changes that occur at the puberty period. Overcoming these effects may be achieved by close monitoring of the hormonal imbalances and proper diet to increase immunity. Proper diet will also prevent obesity, which is a major contributor to asthma (Garg, Wood, ; C.A.B. International, 2013).

References
Agrawal, A. (2015). Obesity and Asthma, An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics. Saint Louis: Elsevier.

Chastang, J., Baiz, N., Parnet, L., Cadwallader, J. S., De, B. F., Caillaud, D., Charpin, D. A., Annesi?Maesano, I. (2017). Changes in body mass index during childhood and risk of various asthma phenotypes: a retrospective analysis. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Creswell, J. W., ; Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Garg, M. L., Wood, L. G., ; C.A.B. International. (2013). Nutrition ; physical activity in inflammatory diseases. Wallingford, Oxford shire, UK: CAB International.

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