Sally Fitzgibbons Foundation

Beginning the Academic Essay

Approximately 17 million to 22 million animals are annually used in laboratories in the United States. For biomedical and behavioral research for societal needs, scientists are using animals for toxicity testing and medicine development. Animals in laboratories are sacrificing without public rights to refuse. Therefore, in 1985, AWA which stands for Animal Welfare Act was established by enacting several regulations around the world such as in Australia, Canada, Japan, and European countries to keep protecting them from abusing. Most of the animals that were used in the testing were mice and rats, and the animal used reported to the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1983 states dogs, cats, and fishes were used in the experimentation, too. However, although over 100 million animals are killed, burned, crippled, and abused in laboratories in the United States every year, no chart in the world cannot demonstrate the exact number of animals that were used in the testing trials because up to 90% of animals are not well counted in the official statistics of animals tested. Some institutions do not report to the public organization because they are too much of them. From about a hundred year ago, numerous laws were introduced to the world to welfare and stop being recklessly treated. Some scientists are insisting that chemical experimentations and animal testing are not so necessary because they cause side effects and disadvantages. They say the results of the testing to the animals cannot perfectly prove that no risks would never happen to the humans when new drugs and techniques are introduced to them. The outcomes

are not that accurate since some structure and reactions are not completely the same. People had also addressed pieces of evidence how chemical testing is detrimental and peril to animals since 50% of the animals are killed and died after the experiments. Animals are likely to suffer from certain diseases like convulsions, severe abdominal pain, seizures, and tremors which would also cause them to be killed. So since the number of animals that are being killed every year is a lot, organizations and scientists are focusing on reducing the number of them by searching alternatives instead of doing cruel experimentations on animals.
Animal testing was the most important portion in the field of science before Vesalius slash open the actual human’s body to develop human anatomy. The use of animals in the experiments was started in the 17th century with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE). They dissected not only pigs but also goats to newly introduce animal testing which was known as “Father of Vivisection”. The popularity of using animal experiment was actively initiated in the 19th century. The reason animals were used in testing was that they have similar body structure with human beings so that they can compare and find out if there are any side effects to humans. Testing animals are collected in nature as wild animals and for some exact experimentations results, animals that are fabricated on DNA are produced to have specific trait and reactions. When a new drug or surgical technique is likely to be developed, people test on animals to check any possibility to cause any harm than good. People can be ensured whether the drug or technique is effective and safe to be used to humans. Animals are potential to obtain distress and suffering during the procedures of the animal experimentations. Majority of animals are killed at the end of the experiment but some of them are also left for the later experiments. For instance, a long time ago, technology has not been advanced a lot, animals for space experiments were left in the space after achieving experimental goals. Their role was to check whether humans would get any disease or specific symptoms after reaching on planets in space. One of a dog called “Leica” were sent to space through a launched artificial satellite. He was the initial attempt at letting animals be used as experiment. However, the temperature system did not operate correctly and the aircraft was overheated and exploded at the end. As a result, Leica could not return to Earth and he may still be wandering around in space somewhere.
Estimated numbers of animals that were used in the United States each year are approximately around 10 million to upwards of 100 million. However, organizations such as OTA, including several Public National surveys state that all these data are not reliable since many institutions might not have reported the exact number of animals that are used. Therefore, the best sources that have reliable data are USDA or APHIS census which said, “We suggests that at least 17 million to 22 million animals were used in research and testing in the United States in 1983.”. A large amount of rats and mice were mainly utilized for animal experiment and in the chart that was created for USDA’s requirement to analyze their annual use of dogs, cats, hamsters and many other animals in order, it says dogs were used more than three times that cats were used. Dogs were used about 182,425 and cats were used about 55,346 as the following for animal used reported to the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1983. The largest portion is primarily used in developing drugs and the other important portions are to test many other substances such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, and consumer products for any possibility to possess any toxicity. The reason that experiments are mainly focused on the existence of toxicity is that all substances are easily exposed to toxic materials, even water.
To these numerous animals, many people resist the idea that animals are entitled to rights. Some critics challenge the idea by proving that animals are unavailable to vote, file for divorce and marry. This ideas might seem that animals do not have any right since the opinions of the critics are correct. However, if an eight-month-old child is suggested as an example, their ideas are absolutely rejected because a professor of philosophy at Noth Carolina State University in Raleigh, Tom Regan said “An eight-month-old child for example. Does not have either the right to vote or the other rights enumerated in the objection.” He further explained, “But this does not mean that the child lacks the right to be treated with respect.” So according to the rights view that young children has already possessed, there is no reason to judge the status of animals unlikely to humans. If they have the right to be treated with respect, animals do not have the right to vote, marry, or file for divorce. Although animals also have rights, numerous examples are happening in the world that perfectly ignore rights for animals. As an example, scientists in New Zealand wanted to find out where would blood be spattered if people shoot a gun. So they fired a gun to the alive pigs several times and presented in “Journal of Forensic Sciences”. Also, paper in “Nature” used materials that might cause cancer tumor than permitted numerical amounts for experimental mice. Both two examples were criticized from AWA because people had abused animals as a sort of testing tool, not a living organism. AWA which refers Animal Welfare Act protects certain numbers of animals in certain areas by arguing that animals are entitled to rights and they should be equally treated as humans by letting them not be owned or used in any regard and providing freedom. The AWA which were firstly launched in 1966 was a common law system that had included several standards that are adopted by APHIS under the authority granted by the AWA. They regulate maximum or minimum temperature in the laboratory or in the shelter, lighting, and ventilation to maintain animals to be cared with well offered food and clean environment to live. Also, for the marine mammals specially, the water that they live is weekly checked and separate with congenial animals each other depending on their types of animals housed or size etc. Moreover, many new national laws for protection of animals were commenced in many different countries such as in Australia, Canada, Japan, and European countries for the same purpose. The Chapter 16, Regulation of Animal Use in Selected Foreign Countries says that “The most common provisions are prohibitions against painful experiments without anesthesia unless anesthesia would frustrate the purpose of the experiment”. The laws are all related to welfare animals so that they can be well treated without any inhumane methods.
Among many animal testing, experiments of existence of toxicity and medicine development are progressed through chemical testing. However, professor Alix Fano insists that chemical testing on animals is unreliable. He explained, “While mice are regularly used in chemical testing, their physiology-makes them inadequate and unreliable subjects”. Therefore, what he said was outcomes from the chemical experimentations on mice can cause misleading. Moreover, the testing is very harmful and painful for animals because if the chemical does are compared to humans with mice, the chemical does given to mice are much more higher than any does a hum would be exposed to. Also, conditions for testing animals are not prepared well and they would cause animals to be stressful so that the circumstances can bring about different results that are expected to them. Since stressed animals sometimes show different reactions than animals who are relaxed, chemical experimentation cannot guarantee that the testing is not always helpful to safeguard human health. The chemicals that are currently being used are about more than 85,000 on the market which are dyes, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and soaps etc. Around 1,500 to 2,000 numbers of new chemicals are newly added to that toxic material every year. While animals are tested, they are forced to drink or eat the chemical substances by using different methods. Scientist usually use a method called gavage which is to insert substances in animals’ stomach. Also, they inject toxic vapors in their bodies, paint the chemical substances on the surface of their skin, or sometimes drop in their eyes deliberately to rats, mice, rabbits, dogs and fish etc. Then they get risks by suffering convulsions, severe abdominal pain, seizures, and tremors. Animals are paralyzed and often lose their organ’s functions which will finally cause animals fall into comas. About 50 percent of animals that were used in animal testing may be killed in these various ways to control only one chemical. Because of these intense side effects to many different types of animals, the EPA has freshly presented new testing programs at the beginning in early October 1998. The High Production Volume which is called HPV Chemical Challenge program asked for 2,800 chemicals to be produced and imported in amounts of one million pounds every year. In the serious consideration for testing improvements, EPA and the Chemical Manufacturers, and the Environmental Defense fund announced “The program is slated to cost $700 million to implement, $11 million to administer, and would poison some 1.3 million animals.”. EDSP which stands for Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program in the second program has to determine how to destroy chemical elements and they declared that they have to test human’s hormone system by exploring 60,000 chemical substances to do so. Level of Circulating Oestrogen and Proges makes humans and mice differ from each other by making differences of three times in the immune system. Toxicologist Joh Giesy who is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, has said, “Unbelievably stupid and a waste of resources’ to legislate endocrine testing given the high level of uncertainty surrounding the endocrine disruption theory.”
And at the last or third program, EPA that are accomplishing differentiating more than ten chemical elements in animal testing stated that at least 200,000 number of animals will be killed, following to the EPA’s Child Health Testing Program, CHTP, including the barbaric LD50 test. The EPA has refused to open the list of chemicals of planning in the public because they were feared if they would be blamed or criticized just like its HPV and endocrine have received.
Some scientists keep doing experimentations to the animals, on the other hand, groups of people are speaking up that there are a bunch of disadvantages of animal testing so that they should reduce the number of it or eventually stop. Specific reasons are supported to prove that animal testing is not quite essential and beneficial. First, success in animal testing does not sustain to human safety for sure. For example, whenever the sleeping pill thalidomide was created in the 1950s in Europe, people advertised that the medicine would relieve the morning sickness to pregnant women after testing on rats, mice, cats, dogs, and pigs. The testing had determined and evaluated that all of the process was so successful that the medicine would never cause side effects and it was also called as “miracle medicine”. However, the miracle medicine has caused the worst tragic situation ever in developing medicine. Pregnant women who have taken the medicine delivered babies with deformities. In Germany, 5,000 babies were influenced and 12,000 babies over 50 different countries were affected due to the drug. After four and a half years later, scientists who were curious about this astonishing circumstances have detected relationships between the malformed children and the medicine. For sure, the drugs in the world were immediately banned in the market. As this occasion, experts pinched this as a problem that structure of DNA for humans and animals are not 100% the same and materials that had any rejected reaction can be fatal to humans. Also, as another example, the arthritis drug Vioxx caused more than 20,000 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths to humans even though people tested on animals if the drug is surely safe and fine. Second, plenty of animal lives are wasted for experimentations. Since the experiments start with possibility of failure instead of 100% success, animals can accidentally be killed or luckily survive at the end of the testing. Some animals are killed and the animals that are survived would be trapped again to be reused for the subsequent experiment in the future. The significant numbers of animals have already lived in a very small space since their birth or for several years and they were killed after the testing. This kind of method is really so inhumane and unethical that their rights to live freely are perfectly ignored by passively locked in the labs. Third, medical breakthroughs do not require animals to be involved. Opponents are defending that animals are not that necessary for discovering treatment and cures. If funds and resources are focused on alternatives that do not require animals, it would be much more humane, ethical and cheap solutions. One of the alternatives that is newly brought out is to give full support on the microfluidic chip which is famous for organs on a chip. The chip has involved useful functions since it can perform as actual human organs’ functions, mix, pump, and sort. Lastly, scientists can search for any ways to do animal experimentation at a lower price. Scientists can practice by building a artificial human skin that is constructed through computer models so that it has capacity to guess toxicity levels of elements. Then the fake similar structure of humans instead of using animal skin would help scientists collect data and draw conclusions by spending less money on the experiment. This might be very vital because they are less expensive than animal testing does. The professor John H. Gibbons says “A phototoxicity test that does not use rats only cost 1,300 dollars, which is almost 10,000 dollars less than its animal-based equivalent.” He further illustrated that a large amount of dollars of government is wasted for allocating research. An alternative that can replace animal experimentations might be the current one of the biggest issue in the world. An epoch-making discovery is “Organoid”. The “Organoid” is a technology to make small organs by reorganizing and nurturing stem cells obtained from stem cells or organ cells. In 2009, Dr. Hans Clevers of Hub Brecht Institute in the Netherlands has succeeded in creating intestines through combining stem cells together and he presented the first organoids to the world. Later on, in 2013, Dr. Lancaster in Cambridge University in the United Kingdom has also won success to make brain organoids by utilizing nerve stem cells. Scientists are keeping progressing to do more research on different types of brain diseases such as kidney, thyroid, liver, and pancreas.
About 23 million animals are regularly killed every year for humans’ greed. Humans do experiments on animals for toxicity testing and medicine development. Animals in the laboratories also have rights not to be abused and refuse to be killed but it is not well kept in silence. Numbers in the chart that are in the book and websites directly show that this is a serious problem to concern, but the problem is that the number that are uploaded in community is also not precise. Organizations and institutions that have killed animals for their needs do not honestly report the exact numbers to the public. Therefore, AWA, Animal Welfare Act also cannot seize the situation how many animals are actually used and are killed. Some countries in the world have recognized and realized the seriousness and Australia, Canada, Japan and many other European countries are regulating people by building limits for animals to protect. Various types of animals such as mice, rats, dogs, cats and even mammals are being sacrificed in many different methods. While they are doing experimentations, they are burned, killed, and abused in small labs. 50% of animals that were used in the experimentations are killed because the substance was too powerful to withstand for them. The labs would provide them stress and depression and these tell that the condition of testing is not well prepared. Furthermore, animal testing has several disadvantages not only for them but also for society. Whenever the animal experiment was first started, scientists guarantee safety for human since it was already on trials and practiced several times. However, one of the medicine, thalidomide brought about more serious situation by making pregnant women born babies with deformities. This happening had impacts on Germany and fifty different countries around the world as the medicine was exported. Not only this, more examples and disadvantages of being inhumane are proving that animal testing should be stopped and reduced. In order to decrease the number of animal testing, numerous countries and scientists are interested in suggesting alternatives for this. One of the alternative that is being actively used is “Organoids”. The “Organoid” had the great influence on science field because it could be used as a substitute tool instead of killing innocent animals. It was a wonderful discovery and the principle of utilizing organoids was to reorganize and nurture stem cells taken from either stem cells or organ cells. With numerous attempts and tryouts, some doctors in 2009 and 2013 have succeeded in applying in various organs to create identical copy of artificial organs. They used the idea to combine stem cells itself together to form another duplication. Scientists in the world are still exploring to figure out alternatives for animals in order to stop or reduce the number of them. Scientists would put more efforts for people who are looking forward better world for animals on developing organoids to replace animals and they might be working on new projects just like organoids to save more lives of animals instead of being killed with brutality.

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